Presentation on theme: "The Modern Middle East The Cradle of Civilization."— Presentation transcript:
The Modern Middle East The Cradle of Civilization
The Modern Middle East What will we be learning? Where and What: The Middle East The Difference: Arab and Muslim The Difference: Sunni and Shia The aftermath of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan The Persian Gulf War and the rise of Osama bin Laden What we knew about 9/11 The Attacks on 9/11 Afghanistan & Iraq
Differentiating Terms Arabs and Muslims Muslim Religious Follower Arab Ethnic Group Believes in Islam A Muslim is a follower of Islam So, what’s the difference between Sunni Muslims and Shia (Shi'ite) Muslims? Lives in, or is from, an Arab country (does NOT include Iran, Israel, or Turkey.) Speaks Arabic Although MOST Arabs are Muslim, it IS possible to be a Arab and Christian or Jewish. However, MOST Muslims are NOT Arab
Differentiating Terms Sunni and Shia Shia Sunni Believed that the successor to the prophet Muhammad should remain within the prophets family. Ali Abu Talib would be the first Imam Believed that the successor to the prophet Muhammad should be elected. Abu Bakr would be the first Caliph Constitutes roughly 85% to 90% of the Muslim population After the death of the prophet, Muhammad, in 632 AD, the Islamic community would split. This is where the Sunni and Shia are different. More like a Democracy More like a Monarchy
The Aftermath of Afghanistan What group fought the Soviets during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan? The Mujahedeen – a coalition of Afghan tribes. Following the retreat of Soviet troops in 1989, and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Afghanistan would enter into a period of civil war from. 1992 to 1996. One of the groups consisted of Afghan refugees recruited from Saudi backed religious schools in Pakistan. These fanatical students were “ Talibs ”, Pashto for “ students ”. These “ talibs ” would for the Taliban.
The Aftermath of Afghanistan Many of the Taliban were already trained by the CIA. During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the USA printed $51m worth of reading material aimed at spurring “Islamic fanaticism”. Why? Urge the Mujahedeen to fight viciously and endlessly against the Soviet Union. By 1996, the Taliban would be in control of Kabul, and thus Afghanistan. The Taliban would welcome Osama bin Laden (UBL) in 1996 after his expulsion from Sudan. UBL would become the head of Al-Qaeda.
The Aftermath of Afghanistan What would anger Osama bin Laden if the United States had supported the Mujahedeen during the Soviet invasion? The Persian Gulf War