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ISLAMIC HISTORY Muhammad to Modernity. Chronology of Early Caliphs Muhammad: 570 to 632 Abu Bakr – 632 to 634 1 st caliph & Muhammad’s father-in-law Elected.

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Presentation on theme: "ISLAMIC HISTORY Muhammad to Modernity. Chronology of Early Caliphs Muhammad: 570 to 632 Abu Bakr – 632 to 634 1 st caliph & Muhammad’s father-in-law Elected."— Presentation transcript:

1 ISLAMIC HISTORY Muhammad to Modernity

2 Chronology of Early Caliphs Muhammad: 570 to 632 Abu Bakr – 632 to st caliph & Muhammad’s father-in-law Elected caliph Umar – 634 to 644 Assassinated Uthman – 644 to 656 Published the Qur’an Assassinated Ali – 656 to 661 Married to Fatimah Assassinated Mu’awiya – 661 to 680 Part of Umaayad family Accused Ali of Uthman’s assassination War Ali assassinated Capitol goes to Damascus “Umaayad Caliphate” ( CE) Causes Sunni/Shiite split Abu’ al-Abbas Starts Abbasid caliphate Al-Mansur Moves capitol to Baghdad

3 Sunni/Shiite Split Uthman is assassinated (656), Ali becomes caliph, Ali is assassinated 5 years later. Debate is Over Authority to Interpret Qur’an and Sunna Sunni Believe in the “Ulama” (religious scholars) and Caliphate Shiite Believe in Ali and Ali’s Successors and Imamate Civil war (Mu’awiya vs. Ali) results in Ali’s assassination & establishment of the Umaayad Dynasty (the 1 st “state”) At Ali’s Funeral

4 Turks & Mongols In 900’s, Turks appeared and started converting to Islam Turks overran Persia – Baghdad Fell in 1055 (Abbasids become puppet regime) Turks Defended Islam During Crusades ( ) Mongols Invade ( ) Chinggis Khan Hulegu Khan Defeated the Abbasids in 1258 Ghazan Khan Converts (1295) and Establishes the Khanate Rules mostly through Persian viziers

5 Ottoman Empire ( ) Osman Rises to Power in 1299 Expands & Defeats Constantinople in Istanbul Becomes the Ottoman Capitol Mehmet Works Out Compromise w/Orthodox Church (Christian religious autonomy for Ottoman political rule) Expansion and Dominance in 16 th Century Stagnation and Political Westernization 17 th -19 th Century

6 Western Imperialism and WW I Britain Starts Colonizing North African and Middle East in Late 19 th Century WW I Destroys the Ottoman Empire (Ottoman secret treaty w/Germany against Russia) Launches a Period of Arab Nationalism (Islamic Brotherhood/backlash to secularism/British rule)

7 WW II and Cold War Aftermath Middle East / N. Africa fought over in WWII for oil Aftermath of WW II leads to U.N. and Establishment of Israel End of European Imperialism and establishment of Arab national states Increase in Cold War tensions (Eastern block, western block, and non-aligned nations) Increasing economic power of Arab states due to OIL

8 Israel In aftermath of the holocaust, U.N. and England decide to establish the state of Israel in British controlled Palestine. Intent is to

9 Iran, the CIA, and the Hostage Crisis Operation Ajax (1953) Shah of Iran ( ) Hostage Crisis, Ayatollah Khoemeni, and the Islamic State Iraq and Saddam Hussein Iran Iraq War Current Tensions (Hezbollah, and Nuclear Weapons)

10 Afghanistan and al-Qaeda Nomadic/Tribal Muslims Soviet Invasion in 1980 U.S. Trained and Supported Opposition Opposition Won and then Turned on U.S./West

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