Presentation on theme: "The Modern Middle East 1.Geographically : “The Middle East/ Near East” – Egypt, Arabian Peninsula and surrounding countries, territory between Mediterranean."— Presentation transcript:
The Modern Middle East 1.Geographically : “The Middle East/ Near East” – Egypt, Arabian Peninsula and surrounding countries, territory between Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, and Persian Gulf 2. Linguistically/ Ethnically : “The Arab World” – Usually identified through Arab speakers of the Arabic language (language spread through Islam) Over 11 major languages in use throughout this region (Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Berber, Kurdish- top 5) Over 30 ethnic groups (see maps for diversity) 3. Religiously : “The Islamic World” – Identified by followers of Islam in areas with large populations of Muslims and/or theocratic government Includes Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkey, Northern Africa Over 10 main religious groups in this region What do we call this region and why?
Even though Arabic is the main language utilized: There are many dialects of Arabic (mixed with native indigenous languages) which could be considered a different language altogether and as a result many do not understand other Arabic speakers.
Egypt Gamal Abdul Nasser- – Deposed pro-western King Farouk – Very popular nationalistic Pan-Arab leader – Needed $$ for Aswan Dam (US refused, USSR agreed) – Weapons- US refused, Czechs (USSR) agreed – THUS, nationalized Suez Canal – Very popular leader among nonaligned countries standing up to strong Western leaders (West NOT happy… Cold War)
Iran – 1953 Shah Reza Pahlavi (king) Oil- Brits controlled Mossadeq- nationalist leader CIA coup- rid Iran of Mossadeq’s influence, thus keeping oil profits and a pro-western leader (also viewed as containment of communism) – 1979 Iranian Revolution – Shah deposed by Ayatollah Khomeini – Extreme religious nationalist movement backwards – Very anti-western (step back in women’s rights, education, etc). Iran Hostage Crisis- US Embassy attacked, 66 Americans held – Freed in 1981 (Argo film) Crash Course
ISRAEL Crash Course- Israel Creation of Israel 1. 19 th century Zionism (Jewish nationalism) 2. Balfour Declaration, 1917 – British intent to create a Jewish “national home” 3. British mandate of Palestine - After WWI/ fall of Ottoman Empire control -11% population- Jewish; 10% Christian - Also promised control to Arab Palestinians 4. 1947- UN voted to create 2 states (one Arab, one Jewish) 5. May 1948- State of Israel 6. 1948 Arab- Israeli War 7. 1967 Six Day War & 1973 Yom Kippur War - Israeli troops won (gained land)
Iraq – Saddam Hussein and Ba’ath Party General of military in 1976 1979- became President (forced resignation of Al- Bakr) – Chemical gases against Kurds – Persian Gulf War (Kuwait and oil) Declawed Saddam, left in power. – After 9/11: Weapons of Mass Destruction claim –false 2003- taken out of power, Iraq needed infrastructure to be rebuilt.
Afghanistan 1979- USSR invades: US helps arm Afghan “freedom fighters”, mujahideen to fight USSR -Osama bin Laden: Wealthy Saudi who joins the fight against the non-believing Soviet invaders -Taliban: Afghan refugees educated in Pakistani religious schools, madrassas. - “Talib”= student’ ; taliban= students - Return to Afghanistan - Most strict interpretation of Qu’ran in history, ruled from 1996-2001. - US invades after 9/11 due to aid to Al Qaeda. -Al Qaeda: - Islamic fundamental extremist terror organization - Trained in Afghanistan, led by bin Laden, responsible for attacks on World Trade Center in NYC, on Sept. 11, 2001 -Ideological not national group