Presentation on theme: "Pearson Longman PoliticalScienceInteractive"— Presentation transcript:
1Pearson Longman PoliticalScienceInteractive Shea, Green, and SmithLiving Democracy, Second EditionChapter 9:Bureaucracy
2Government and Natural Disasters In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans and the Gulf Coast.FEMA’s response was highly criticized.
3Pathways of Action: Arsenic Standards for Drinking Water Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) authorized the EPA to set purity standards.National Academy of Sciences wanted to mandate arsenic levels of only 3 ppb (down from 50 ppb). Affected industries and communities complained that the new standards would be too costly.
4Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy Organizations with a hierarchical structure and specific responsibilities, which operate on management principles intended to enhance efficiency and effectivenessFour types of organizational entities:DepartmentsIndependent agenciesIndependent regulatory commissionsGovernment corporations
5The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy The Expansion of Federal Civil Employment
6The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy The First DepartmentsDepartment of StateDepartment of WarDepartment of JusticeDepartment of the Treasury
7The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy The New Deal and its AftermathSocial Security, 1935Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation CorpsAgricultural Adjustment Act, 1933
8The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy The New Deal and its Aftermath
9The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy Changes Since the 1960sDepartment of EnergyDepartment of Veteran Affairs (formerly the Veterans Administration)Department of Homeland Security, which absorbed the:Federal Emergency Management AgencyImmigration and Naturalization ServiceCoast GuardSecret ServiceIs the department too big to be effective?
10Departments State (1789) Treasury (1789) Defense (1947; from War Department,1789, and Navy Department, 1798)Justice (1789)Interior (1849)Agriculture (1889)Commerce (1913)Labor (1913)Health and Human Services (1979, Health, Education, and Welfare, 1953; Education split, 1979)Housing and Urban Development (1965)Transportation (1966)Energy (1977)Education (1979)Veterans Affairs (1989)Homeland Security (2002)
13Departments and Independent Agencies Political Appointees in the BureaucracyWork directly for presidentConfirmation processInexperience of Michael Brown and subsequent problems might lead to more positions coming under scrutiny by SenateAppointments can be used by presidents as rewards, and to signal agendas
15Pathways Profile: Joan Claybrook Has worked since 1960s on lobbying government to create and enforce safety regulationsAdministrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration under Carter administrationHead of Public Citizen, an advocacy organization
16The Image of the Bureaucracy Percentage of Americans rating the performance of the above agencies as “excellent” or “good”
17The Image of the Bureaucracy Do federal agencies receive blame unfairly for falling short of perfection?
18The Advantages of Bureaucracy Bureaucracies are created and evolve as a means to undertake the purposes and responsibilities of organizations. They provide:StandardizationExpertise and CompetenceAccountabilityCoordination
19The Nature of Bureaucracy Patronage or Spoils SystemSuccessful political candidates and parties reward supporters with government positions, while firing those from the opposing party.Used by governments until late 1800sLed to high turnover in government officials, abuse of influenceGarfield’s assassination led to overhaulCivil service system, created by Pendleton Act, 1883
20The Nature of Bureaucracy Civil Service SystemPendleton Act, 1883Hatch Act
21Problems of Government Bureaucracy No Child Left Behind (2002)Government Accountability Office reported in 2004 that the law had been poorly implemented.States complained that the U.S. Department of Education failed to provide appropriate guidelines.Transportation Security Administration (2001)Created after the 9/11 attacksAgency was plagued with problems of theft and poorly- conducted background checks of employees.
22Reform of the Bureaucracy DecentralizationMore power to regional officesStates could be given more authorityThis approach based on the assumption that smaller agencies can be more effective, closer to their workDownside is the potential for inconsistenciesPrivatizationPotentially better for saving moneyArguably more efficient, less expensiveDownside is that there would be no oversight, and that private companies would be more susceptible to outside influence
24The Bureaucracy and Legislation The Iron TriangleInterest groupsBureaucratic leaders and expertsCongress members
25The Bureaucracy and Information Bureaucrats provide information for Congress to use in crafting and approving statutesCommittee proceedings or requests for reports and documents to be supplied by government agenciesFormal methodLegislative staffers or members of Congress contact agency officials with questionsInformal method
26RegulationsLegal rules created by government agencies based on authority delegated by the legislationGeneral statutory language can become the basis for the bureaucracy’s development of its own precise rules, a form of agency-created law called regulations, which govern the topics under a particular agency’s jurisdiction.Statutes also specify the procedures that agencies must use in developing regulations.
27Quasi-Judicial Processes Bureaucracy affects policy through hearing processes that look similar to courts’ duties in examining evidence and issuing decisions.Hearings can be either formal or informal.
28Student Profile: Kristen Eschemendia and Heidi Craig Interested in case of Guatemalan man to be deportedConvinced Board of Immigration Appeals to allow the man to remain in the U.S.
29Oversight and Accountability All three branches of government have the power to subject the bureaucracy to oversight and accountability.