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Pearson Longman PoliticalScienceInteractive Shea, Green, and Smith Living Democracy, Second Edition Chapter 9: Bureaucracy.

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Presentation on theme: "Pearson Longman PoliticalScienceInteractive Shea, Green, and Smith Living Democracy, Second Edition Chapter 9: Bureaucracy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pearson Longman PoliticalScienceInteractive Shea, Green, and Smith Living Democracy, Second Edition Chapter 9: Bureaucracy

2 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Government and Natural Disasters In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans and the Gulf Coast. FEMA’s response was highly criticized.

3 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Pathways of Action: Arsenic Standards for Drinking Water Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) authorized the EPA to set purity standards. National Academy of Sciences wanted to mandate arsenic levels of only 3 ppb (down from 50 ppb). Affected industries and communities complained that the new standards would be too costly.

4 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy Four types of organizational entities: 1.Departments 2.Independent agencies 3.Independent regulatory commissions 4.Government corporations Bureaucracy Organizations with a hierarchical structure and specific responsibilities, which operate on management principles intended to enhance efficiency and effectiveness

5 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy The Expansion of Federal Civil Employment

6 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy The First Departments 1.Department of State 2.Department of War 3.Department of Justice 4.Department of the Treasury

7 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy The New Deal and its Aftermath Social Security, 1935 Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps Agricultural Adjustment Act, 1933

8 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy The New Deal and its Aftermath

9 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy Changes Since the 1960s Department of Energy Department of Veteran Affairs (formerly the Veterans Administration) Department of Homeland Security, which absorbed the: Federal Emergency Management Agency Immigration and Naturalization Service Coast Guard Secret Service Is the department too big to be effective?

10 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Departments State (1789) Treasury (1789) Defense (1947; from War Department,1789, and Navy Department, 1798) Justice (1789) Interior (1849) Agriculture (1889) Commerce (1913) Labor (1913) Health and Human Services (1979, Health, Education, and Welfare, 1953; Education split, 1979) Housing and Urban Development (1965) Transportation (1966) Energy (1977) Education (1979) Veterans Affairs (1989) Homeland Security (2002)

11 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Departments

12 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy

13 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Departments and Independent Agencies Work directly for president Confirmation process Inexperience of Michael Brown and subsequent problems might lead to more positions coming under scrutiny by Senate Appointments can be used by presidents as rewards, and to signal agendas Political Appointees in the Bureaucracy

14 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Departments and Independent Agencies

15 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Pathways Profile: Joan Claybrook Has worked since 1960s on lobbying government to create and enforce safety regulations Administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration under Carter administration Head of Public Citizen, an advocacy organization

16 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Image of the Bureaucracy Percentage of Americans rating the performance of the above agencies as “excellent” or “good”

17 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Image of the Bureaucracy Do federal agencies receive blame unfairly for falling short of perfection?

18 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Advantages of Bureaucracy Bureaucracies are created and evolve as a means to undertake the purposes and responsibilities of organizations. They provide: Standardization Expertise and Competence Accountability Coordination

19 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Nature of Bureaucracy Successful political candidates and parties reward supporters with government positions, while firing those from the opposing party. Used by governments until late 1800s Led to high turnover in government officials, abuse of influence Garfield’s assassination led to overhaul Civil service system, created by Pendleton Act, 1883 Patronage or Spoils System

20 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Nature of Bureaucracy Civil Service System Pendleton Act, 1883 Hatch Act

21 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Problems of Government Bureaucracy No Child Left Behind (2002) Government Accountability Office reported in 2004 that the law had been poorly implemented. States complained that the U.S. Department of Education failed to provide appropriate guidelines. Transportation Security Administration (2001) Created after the 9/11 attacks Agency was plagued with problems of theft and poorly- conducted background checks of employees.

22 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Reform of the Bureaucracy Decentralization More power to regional offices States could be given more authority This approach based on the assumption that smaller agencies can be more effective, closer to their work Downside is the potential for inconsistencies Privatization Potentially better for saving money Arguably more efficient, less expensive Downside is that there would be no oversight, and that private companies would be more susceptible to outside influence

23 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Lobbying Pathway and Policymaking

24 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Bureaucracy and Legislation The Iron Triangle Interest groups Congress members Bureaucratic leaders and experts

25 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy The Bureaucracy and Information Bureaucrats provide information for Congress to use in crafting and approving statutes Formal method Committee proceedings or requests for reports and documents to be supplied by government agencies Legislative staffers or members of Congress contact agency officials with questions Informal method

26 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Regulations General statutory language can become the basis for the bureaucracy’s development of its own precise rules, a form of agency-created law called regulations, which govern the topics under a particular agency’s jurisdiction. Statutes also specify the procedures that agencies must use in developing regulations. Legal rules created by government agencies based on authority delegated by the legislation

27 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Quasi-Judicial Processes Bureaucracy affects policy through hearing processes that look similar to courts’ duties in examining evidence and issuing decisions. Hearings can be either formal or informal.

28 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Interested in case of Guatemalan man to be deported Convinced Board of Immigration Appeals to allow the man to remain in the U.S. Student Profile: Kristen Eschemendia and Heidi Craig

29 Shea, Green, and Smith, Living Democracy, Second EditionCopyright 2009 Pearson Longman Chapter 9: Bureaucracy Oversight and Accountability All three branches of government have the power to subject the bureaucracy to oversight and accountability.


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