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Pearson Longman PoliticalScienceInteractive

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1 Pearson Longman PoliticalScienceInteractive
Shea, Green, and Smith Living Democracy, Second Edition Chapter 9: Bureaucracy

2 Government and Natural Disasters
In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans and the Gulf Coast. FEMA’s response was highly criticized.

3 Pathways of Action: Arsenic Standards for Drinking Water
Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) authorized the EPA to set purity standards. National Academy of Sciences wanted to mandate arsenic levels of only 3 ppb (down from 50 ppb). Affected industries and communities complained that the new standards would be too costly.

4 Organization of the Federal Bureaucracy
Organizations with a hierarchical structure and specific responsibilities, which operate on management principles intended to enhance efficiency and effectiveness Four types of organizational entities: Departments Independent agencies Independent regulatory commissions Government corporations

5 The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy
The Expansion of Federal Civil Employment

6 The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy
The First Departments Department of State Department of War Department of Justice Department of the Treasury

7 The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy
The New Deal and its Aftermath Social Security, 1935 Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps Agricultural Adjustment Act, 1933

8 The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy
The New Deal and its Aftermath

9 The Development of the Federal Bureaucracy
Changes Since the 1960s Department of Energy Department of Veteran Affairs (formerly the Veterans Administration) Department of Homeland Security, which absorbed the: Federal Emergency Management Agency Immigration and Naturalization Service Coast Guard Secret Service Is the department too big to be effective?

10 Departments State (1789) Treasury (1789)
Defense (1947; from War Department,1789, and Navy Department, 1798) Justice (1789) Interior (1849) Agriculture (1889) Commerce (1913) Labor (1913) Health and Human Services (1979, Health, Education, and Welfare, 1953; Education split, 1979) Housing and Urban Development (1965) Transportation (1966) Energy (1977) Education (1979) Veterans Affairs (1989) Homeland Security (2002)

11 Departments


13 Departments and Independent Agencies
Political Appointees in the Bureaucracy Work directly for president Confirmation process Inexperience of Michael Brown and subsequent problems might lead to more positions coming under scrutiny by Senate Appointments can be used by presidents as rewards, and to signal agendas

14 Departments and Independent Agencies

15 Pathways Profile: Joan Claybrook
Has worked since 1960s on lobbying government to create and enforce safety regulations Administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration under Carter administration Head of Public Citizen, an advocacy organization

16 The Image of the Bureaucracy
Percentage of Americans rating the performance of the above agencies as “excellent” or “good”

17 The Image of the Bureaucracy
Do federal agencies receive blame unfairly for falling short of perfection?

18 The Advantages of Bureaucracy
Bureaucracies are created and evolve as a means to undertake the purposes and responsibilities of organizations. They provide: Standardization Expertise and Competence Accountability Coordination

19 The Nature of Bureaucracy
Patronage or Spoils System Successful political candidates and parties reward supporters with government positions, while firing those from the opposing party. Used by governments until late 1800s Led to high turnover in government officials, abuse of influence Garfield’s assassination led to overhaul Civil service system, created by Pendleton Act, 1883

20 The Nature of Bureaucracy
Civil Service System Pendleton Act, 1883 Hatch Act

21 Problems of Government Bureaucracy
No Child Left Behind (2002) Government Accountability Office reported in 2004 that the law had been poorly implemented. States complained that the U.S. Department of Education failed to provide appropriate guidelines. Transportation Security Administration (2001) Created after the 9/11 attacks Agency was plagued with problems of theft and poorly- conducted background checks of employees.

22 Reform of the Bureaucracy
Decentralization More power to regional offices States could be given more authority This approach based on the assumption that smaller agencies can be more effective, closer to their work Downside is the potential for inconsistencies Privatization Potentially better for saving money Arguably more efficient, less expensive Downside is that there would be no oversight, and that private companies would be more susceptible to outside influence

23 Lobbying Pathway and Policymaking

24 The Bureaucracy and Legislation
The Iron Triangle Interest groups Bureaucratic leaders and experts Congress members

25 The Bureaucracy and Information
Bureaucrats provide information for Congress to use in crafting and approving statutes Committee proceedings or requests for reports and documents to be supplied by government agencies Formal method Legislative staffers or members of Congress contact agency officials with questions Informal method

26 Regulations Legal rules created by government agencies based on authority delegated by the legislation General statutory language can become the basis for the bureaucracy’s development of its own precise rules, a form of agency-created law called regulations, which govern the topics under a particular agency’s jurisdiction. Statutes also specify the procedures that agencies must use in developing regulations.

27 Quasi-Judicial Processes
Bureaucracy affects policy through hearing processes that look similar to courts’ duties in examining evidence and issuing decisions. Hearings can be either formal or informal.

28 Student Profile: Kristen Eschemendia and Heidi Craig
Interested in case of Guatemalan man to be deported Convinced Board of Immigration Appeals to allow the man to remain in the U.S.

29 Oversight and Accountability
All three branches of government have the power to subject the bureaucracy to oversight and accountability.

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