Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 The Executive Branch and the Federal Bureaucracy"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 9 The Executive Branch and the Federal Bureaucracy To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas EditionsAmerican Government: Roots and Reform, 10th editionKaren O’Connor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson Education, 2009
2The Roots of Bureaucracy Foreign Affairs, War, Treasury first departments.Growth in early 1800s with Post Office.Patronage and the spoils system become common.Civil War spawns another expansion.Pendleton Act is beginning of civil service system.Also known as merit system.Creation of independent regulatory commissions.
3Twentieth-Century Bureaucracy Growing number of cabinet departments.Need for a larger government to support wars.New Deal and Great Society.
4Modern Bureaucracy More than 2.7 million employees. Most are selected based on merit.Also have high-level appointees.Wide variety of skills represented.Less diverse than America.Scattered throughout D.C. and regional offices.Growth of outside contractors.
5Formal Organization Cabinet departments handle broad, lasting issues. Headed by secretaries.Government corporations act like businesses.Independent executive agencies handle services.Narrower than Cabinet department, independent.Independent regulatory commissions watch industry.Designed to be free from partisan pressure.
6Government Workers and Politics Hatch Act sets first boundaries.Federal Employees Political Act is current standard.
7Characteristics of Bureaucracy Chain of command from top to bottom.Division of labor.Clear lines of authority.Goal orientation.Merit system.Productivity.
8How the Bureaucracy Works Congress creates agencies.Main job is implementation of laws.Policy made in iron triangles or issue networks.Increasing use of interagency councils.
9Making Policy Administrative discretion allows a lot of latitude. Rule-making is a quasi-legislative process.Formal procedure for making regulations.Administrative adjudication is quasi-judicial process.Used to settle disputes between two parties.
10Agency Accountability Unclear who agencies should be accountable to.Presidents try to make the right appointments.Can also shape policy through executive orders.Congress can use oversight powers and funding.Police patrol v. fire alarm oversight.Judiciary can review regulations.