Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 The Bureaucracy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 16 The Bureaucracy Instructor: Kevin SextonCourse: U.S. Political SystemsSoutheast Missouri State University
2 What is a Bureaucracy and where do we find them? Bureaucracy: A hierarchical organization designed to perform aparticular set of tasks.Where do we find bureaucracies?Public Setting -- most, if not all, governments arebased on the BUREAUCRATICmodel.Private Setting --- many large companies operate usingthe BUREAUCRATIC model.ie IBM, Microsoft, Ford Motor Company
3 Characteristics of Bureaucracies According to Max Weber, “Father of modern sociology”, all bureaucracies whetherPublic (government) or Private (for profit corporations) have these basic characteristicsIn common:Operates under a hierarchical structure.Division of labor.High Level of specialization.Operates according to a set of very formal written rules.Employment and promotion decisions based on merit.
4 Authority Flows From The Operates under a hierarchical structure. (The Department of Health and Human Services)President of the United StatesAuthority Flows From TheTop Down
5 Division of labor.The President’s Cabinet is made up of fifteen (15) Departments. Each Department is responsible for implementing a specific set of laws, rules, or policies.1) State 2) Treasury 3) Defense 4) Justice 5) Interior 6) Agriculture 7) Commerce 8) Labor 9) Health & Human Services 10) Housing & Urban Development11) Transportation 12) Energy 13) Education14) Veterans’ Affairs 15) Homeland Security
6 High Level of specialization. Each of the 15 Cabinet Departments are broken down into organizationsThat specialize in dealing with specific programs. As can be seen by lookingAt the organizational chart for the U.S. Department of Justice.Each office focuses on one, or just a very few issues.
7 Operates according to a set of very formal written rules. The Table of Contents/Index for the Code of Federal Regulations is107 Pages Long.The Federal Register is the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, andnotices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders andother presidential documents. In 2004, the Federal Register published 250 VolumesWith a total of 78,851 pages.
8 Employment and promotion decisions based on merit. Of the nearly 2.5 million federal employees (bureaucrats)today, approximately 3000 of them are political appointeesof the president.Spoils SystemAlso known as the Patronage System.People get jobs based on appointments by political leaders.As political leaders changed, so could the people holding the patronage jobs.Merit SystemAlso known as the Civil Service System.People get jobs based on ability to do the job.As political leaders most of those holding civil service jobs do not change.
9 How is the U.S. Bureaucracy Organized. The President executes the laws passed by Congress through three primary types of bureaucratic orgainzations.15 DepartmentsThese make up the President’s Cabinet63 Independent AgenciesE.P.A.N.A.S.A.27 Government OrganizationsUS Postal SystemAmtrak
10 President’s Cabinet WHO ARE THE PRESIDENTS CLOSES ADVISORS? 15 Members.Political Appointees of the President.Must be confirmed by the Senate.Serve at the pleasure of the president. (Can be fired at any time)Since these individuals are confirmed by the Senate, and they areCharged with implementing the laws passed by Congress, theyReport to both the President and the Congress. For this reasonThey are not the Presidents closest advisors.WHO ARE THE PRESIDENTS CLOSES ADVISORS?
11 Presidential AidesMost time the Aides that the President selects to be around him are the people the president depends on most for many of the decisions that need to be made.This is because Aides are not confirmed by the Senate. They get and lose their job by the service they provide to the president.They can provide the president with unbiased opinions because they do not have to worry about Congressional politics.In fact, they do not have to report to Congress on their dealings with the president (usually).
12 Independent Agencies Two Basic Types: Independent Executive Agencies Independent Regulatory AgenciesIndependent Executive AgenciesHave CEO type director.Deals with specific Programi.e. N.A.S.A.Designed to put distance between president and the issue theagency is designed to oversee.i.e. Space Shuttle DisastersPresident appoints and removes.Independent Regulatory AgenciesPresident Appoint member of a Commission, with Senate Confirmation.Fixed term of office, designed to insolate the group from political pressures.Have Regulatory Authority (some rules have same impact as a law).Examples include E.P.A. and the Federal Reserve.
13 Government Corporations Government run entities that provide a PUBLIC SERVICE.Government provides these services becauseThey are vital to continued operation of the country.There is little or no PROFIT in providing the serviceExamples of Government Corporations includeUS Postal Service.AmTrakFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation.They collect fees for their service but do not make enough money to keep themselves operating without government subsidies.i.e. 37 cents to mail a letter is not enough to keep USPS operating. For this reason the federal government gives them money to operate each year.
14 How Does Congress Check the Power of the President and the Bureaucracy? Two powers of Congress to check the power of the president and bureaucracy.1. Budgetary ControlThe federal budget is passed by Congress each year just as a piece oflegislation is. For that reason the amount of money that each federal department,agency and organization has each year is greatly controlled by Congress. If Congressdoesn’t appropriate you any money you can’t operate.2. Legislative OversightThe ability of Congress to hold hearings to review the administrative operationsof an agency. This is done to be sure that the agency is implementing the LAWS asCongress has intended them to. If Congress finds a problem in how a law is beingimplemented they can hold a hearing or even just the threat of a hearing can cause anagency to modify its activities.
15 Iron Triangles Iron Triangles Close, stable relationship among agencies, interestgroups, and congressional committees.All three groups brought something valuable to therelationship so they continued to work together over a longperiod of time.Had great impact on policy and laws in this country. Provided a power base for certain interest groups, federalagencies and congressional committees.
17 Issue Networks Issue Networks operate on the same principle as the Iron Triangle. With each group bring something of importance to the discussion. The major difference being that the two governmental entities (congressional committees and the agencies are being provided information and pressure from competeing interest groups, not just one, or a small number of interest groups as in the Iron Triangle Model. The picture that is used to describe this arrangement looks more like a web than a triangle.A diagram of an Issue Network can be seen on page 389 of your textbook.