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Chapter 16 The Bureaucracy

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1 Chapter 16 The Bureaucracy
Instructor: Kevin Sexton Course: U.S. Political Systems Southeast Missouri State University

2 What is a Bureaucracy and where do we find them?
Bureaucracy: A hierarchical organization designed to perform a particular set of tasks. Where do we find bureaucracies? Public Setting -- most, if not all, governments are based on the BUREAUCRATIC model. Private Setting --- many large companies operate using the BUREAUCRATIC model. ie IBM, Microsoft, Ford Motor Company

3 Characteristics of Bureaucracies
According to Max Weber, “Father of modern sociology”, all bureaucracies whether Public (government) or Private (for profit corporations) have these basic characteristics In common: Operates under a hierarchical structure. Division of labor. High Level of specialization. Operates according to a set of very formal written rules. Employment and promotion decisions based on merit.

4 Authority Flows From The
Operates under a hierarchical structure. (The Department of Health and Human Services) President of the United States Authority Flows From The Top Down

5 Division of labor. The President’s Cabinet is made up of fifteen (15) Departments. Each Department is responsible for implementing a specific set of laws, rules, or policies. 1) State 2) Treasury 3) Defense 4) Justice 5) Interior 6) Agriculture 7) Commerce 8) Labor   9) Health & Human Services  10) Housing & Urban Development 11) Transportation 12) Energy 13) Education 14) Veterans’ Affairs  15) Homeland Security  

6 High Level of specialization.
Each of the 15 Cabinet Departments are broken down into organizations That specialize in dealing with specific programs. As can be seen by looking At the organizational chart for the U.S. Department of Justice. Each office focuses on one, or just a very few issues.

7 Operates according to a set of very formal written rules.
The Table of Contents/Index for the Code of Federal Regulations is 107 Pages Long. The Federal Register is the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and other presidential documents. In 2004, the Federal Register published 250 Volumes With a total of 78,851 pages.

8 Employment and promotion decisions based on merit.
Of the nearly 2.5 million federal employees (bureaucrats) today, approximately 3000 of them are political appointees of the president. Spoils System Also known as the Patronage System. People get jobs based on appointments by political leaders. As political leaders changed, so could the people holding the patronage jobs. Merit System Also known as the Civil Service System. People get jobs based on ability to do the job. As political leaders most of those holding civil service jobs do not change.

9 How is the U.S. Bureaucracy Organized.
The President executes the laws passed by Congress through three primary types of bureaucratic orgainzations. 15 Departments These make up the President’s Cabinet 63 Independent Agencies E.P.A. N.A.S.A. 27 Government Organizations US Postal System Amtrak

15 Members. Political Appointees of the President. Must be confirmed by the Senate. Serve at the pleasure of the president. (Can be fired at any time) Since these individuals are confirmed by the Senate, and they are Charged with implementing the laws passed by Congress, they Report to both the President and the Congress. For this reason They are not the Presidents closest advisors. WHO ARE THE PRESIDENTS CLOSES ADVISORS?

11 Presidential Aides Most time the Aides that the President selects to be around him are the people the president depends on most for many of the decisions that need to be made. This is because Aides are not confirmed by the Senate. They get and lose their job by the service they provide to the president. They can provide the president with unbiased opinions because they do not have to worry about Congressional politics. In fact, they do not have to report to Congress on their dealings with the president (usually).

12 Independent Agencies Two Basic Types: Independent Executive Agencies
Independent Regulatory Agencies Independent Executive Agencies Have CEO type director. Deals with specific Program i.e. N.A.S.A. Designed to put distance between president and the issue the agency is designed to oversee. i.e. Space Shuttle Disasters President appoints and removes. Independent Regulatory Agencies President Appoint member of a Commission, with Senate Confirmation. Fixed term of office, designed to insolate the group from political pressures. Have Regulatory Authority (some rules have same impact as a law). Examples include E.P.A. and the Federal Reserve.

13 Government Corporations
Government run entities that provide a PUBLIC SERVICE. Government provides these services because They are vital to continued operation of the country. There is little or no PROFIT in providing the service Examples of Government Corporations include US Postal Service. AmTrak Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. They collect fees for their service but do not make enough money to keep themselves operating without government subsidies. i.e. 37 cents to mail a letter is not enough to keep USPS operating. For this reason the federal government gives them money to operate each year.

14 How Does Congress Check the Power of the President and the Bureaucracy?
Two powers of Congress to check the power of the president and bureaucracy. 1. Budgetary Control The federal budget is passed by Congress each year just as a piece of legislation is. For that reason the amount of money that each federal department, agency and organization has each year is greatly controlled by Congress. If Congress doesn’t appropriate you any money you can’t operate. 2. Legislative Oversight The ability of Congress to hold hearings to review the administrative operations of an agency. This is done to be sure that the agency is implementing the LAWS as Congress has intended them to. If Congress finds a problem in how a law is being implemented they can hold a hearing or even just the threat of a hearing can cause an agency to modify its activities.

15 Iron Triangles Iron Triangles
Close, stable relationship among agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees. All three groups brought something valuable to the relationship so they continued to work together over a long period of time. Had great impact on policy and laws in this country. Provided a power base for certain interest groups, federal agencies and congressional committees.

16 Iron Triangles (continued)

17 Issue Networks Issue Networks
operate on the same principle as the Iron Triangle. With each group bring something of importance to the discussion. The major difference being that the two governmental entities (congressional committees and the agencies are being provided information and pressure from competeing interest groups, not just one, or a small number of interest groups as in the Iron Triangle Model. The picture that is used to describe this arrangement looks more like a web than a triangle. A diagram of an Issue Network can be seen on page 389 of your textbook.

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