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Chapter 13 The Federal Bureaucracy. United States Department of Interior.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 The Federal Bureaucracy. United States Department of Interior."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 The Federal Bureaucracy

2 United States Department of Interior

3 Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized. Four structural concepts are central to any definition of bureaucracy:sociologypolitical science 1.a well-defined division of administrative labor among persons and offices, 2.a personnel system with consistent patterns of recruitment and stable linear careers, 3.a hierarchy among offices, such that the authority and status are differentially distributed among actors, and 4.formal and informal networks that connect organizational actors to one another through flows of information and patterns of cooperation. Examples of everyday bureaucracies include governments, armed forces, corporations, hospitals, courts, ministries and schoolsgovernmentsarmed forcescorporationshospitalscourtsministriesschools Bureaucracy

4 A system of organization and control that is based on three principles: 1.Hierarchical authority 2.Job Specialization 3.Formalized rules Roughly 2.5 million employees in the U.S. are part of the bureaucracy Bureaucracy in Political Science

5 President Andrew Jackson (1828) opened government jobs to the common people. He inaugurated the spoils system, under which party loyaltynot experience or talentbecame the criterion for a federal job. This was the beginning of patronage, and it continued through the late 19th century History of Bureaucracy

6 Congress passed the Pendleton Act in 1883, which created a system for hiring federal workers based on qualifications rather than political allegiance; employees were also protected from losing their jobs when the administration changed. History of Bureaucracy

7 In 1939, the Hatch Act passed to prohibit federal workers from running for office or actively campaigning for other candidates. History of Bureaucracy

8 1930s: the size of the federal bureaucracy grew exponentially due to President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal agencies. Although many were short-lived, others continue to play a role Example: the Social Security Administration (SSA), the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). History of Bureaucracy

9 1960s: President Lyndon expanded the welfare state with such programs as Medicare, Head Start, the Job Corps, and the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO). 1970s: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created by the Nixon administration, the new Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the Labor Department transformed the workplace for most Americans, and new cabinet departments were established. 2002: Department of Homeland Security established. History of Bureaucracy

10 1.Cabinet Departments: 15 currently exist; major administrative units of the executive; heads, or secretaries, appointed, approved and part of presidential cabinet; each department has responsibility for a general policy area Forms of Bureaucracy

11 State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health & Human Services, Homeland Security, Housing & Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education, and Veterans Affairs. Cabinet Departments

12 2.Independent Agencies: similar to cabinets in structure but have narrower responsibilities Example: Central Intelligence Agency Forms of Bureaucracy

13 3.Regulatory Agencies: Quasi-legislative Quasi-judicial Hold hearings Make rules Resolve disputes Independent President cannot unilaterally remove leaders Example: Environmental Protection Agency Forms of Bureaucracy

14 4.Government Corporations: Similar to private companies because they charge clients for services and are governed by a board of directors Different b/c receive federal funding to help defray operating expenses Example: Amtrak Forms of Bureaucracy

15 5.Commissions: Provide advice to President Exist because the need for rulemaking is highly complex & technical Examples: FTC, FCC, SEC, FEC, FRB Forms of Bureaucracy

16 Environmental Protection Agency Building Washington, D.C.

17 Primary Responsibility is policy implementation (Rule Application, Rule Interpretation, and Rule Initiation) Administrators tend to look out for their agencys point of view. Often, new regulation has a comment period time outlined in the U.S. Federal Register Bureaucracy

18 1.Expertise 2.Special interests, or clientele groups 3.Friends in High Places Sources of Power

19 1.To President (can reorganize or change leadership) 2.To Congress 3.To public 4.To Executive Budget 5.Whistleblowers (individuals can report instances of mismanagement without repercussions) Accountability

20 +3500 appointed by White House Loyalty Number of appointments has increased Tenure of those appointed has decreased Patronage Political Favoritism Spoils System Merit Pendleton Act of 1883 Appointees

21 Office of Personnel Management Bipartisan Merit Systems Protection Board 18 level General Schedule (GS) salary structure Service ratings Hatch Act of 1939 limits political activities of civil service Career Civil Service

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