2 Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA technology procedures by which DNA from different species can be isolated, cut and spliced together -- new "recombinant " molecules are then multiplied in quantity in populations of rapidly dividing cells (e.g. bacteria, yeast).
3 Recombinant DNA Technology The term gene cloning, recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering may seems similar, however they are different techniques in Biotechnology and they are interrelated
4 Recombinant DNA Technology Human gene therapy, genetically-engineered crop plants and transgenic mice have become possible because of the powerful techniques developed to manipulate nucleic acids and proteins.
5 Recombinant DNA Technology In the early 1970s it became possible to isolate a specific piece of DNA out of the millions of base pairs in a typical genome.
6 Recombinant DNA Technology Currently it is relatively easy to cut out a specific piece of DNA, produce a large number of copies , determine its nucleotide sequence, slightly alter it and then as a final step transfer it back into cell in.
7 Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA technology is based on a number of important things:Bacteria contain extrachromosomal molecules of DNA called plasmids which are circular.
8 Recombinant DNA Technology Bacteria also produce enzymes called restriction endonucleases that cut DNA molecules at specific places into many smaller fragments called restriction fragments.
9 Recombinant DNA Technology Restriction Enzymes and plasmidThere are many different kinds of restriction endonucleasesEach nuclei cuts DNA at a specific site defined by a sequence of bases in the DNA called a recognition site
10 Recombinant DNA Technology Restriction Enzymes and plasmidA restriction enzyme cuts only double-helical segments that contain a particular sequence, and it makes its incisions only within that sequence--known as a "recognition sequence".
11 Recombinant DNA Technology Restriction Enzymes and plasmidSticky end and blunt end are the two possible configurations resulting from the breaking of double-stranded DNA
12 Recombinant DNA Technology Restriction Enzymes and plasmidIf two complementary strands of DNA are of equal length, then they will terminate in a blunt end, as in the following example:5'-CpTpGpApTpCpTpGpApCpTpGpApTpGpCpGpTpApTpGpCpTpApGpT-3'3'-GpApCpTpApGpApCpTpGpApCpTpApCpGpCpApTpApCpGpApTpCpA-5'
13 Recombinant DNA Technology Restriction Enzymes and plasmidHowever, if one strand extends beyond the complementary region, then the DNA is said to possess an overhang:5'-ApTpCpTpGpApCpT-3'3'-TpApGpApCpTpGpApCpTpApCpG-5'
14 Recombinant DNA Technology Restriction Enzymes and plasmidIf another DNA fragment exists with a complementary overhang, then these two overhangs will tend to associate with each other and each strand is said to possess a sticky end:
15 Recombinant DNA Technology Restriction Enzymes and plasmid5'-ApTpCpTpGpApCpT pGpApTpGpCpGpTpApTpGpCpT-3'3'-TpApGpApCpTpGpApCpTpApCpGp CpApTpApCpGpA-5'Becomes5'-ApTpCpTpGpApCpT pGpApTpGpCpGpTpApTpGpCpT-3'3'-TpApGpApCpTpGpApCpTpApCpGp CpApTpApCpGpA-5'
16 Recombinant DNA Technology Restriction Enzymes and plasmidRestriction Enzymes are primarily found in bacteria and are given abbreviations based on genus and species of the bacteria.One of the first restriction enzymes to be isolated was from EcoRIEcoRI is so named because it was isolated from Escherichia coli strain called RY13.
17 Recombinant DNA Technology Digestion of DNA by EcoRI to produce cohesive ends ( Fig. 3.1):
18 Recombinant DNA Technology Creating recombinant DNA :The first Recombinant DNA molecules were made by Paul Berg at Stanford University in 1972.In 1973 Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen created the first recombinant DNA organisms.
19 Recombinant DNA Technology Creating Recombinant DNA (Fig 3.2):
20 Recombinant DNA Technology Reading materials :Summary of Recombinant DNA technology process:Recombinant DNA technology requires DNA extraction, purification, and fragmentation.Fragmentation of DNA is done by specific 'restriction' enzymes and is followed by sorting and isolation of fragments containing a particular gene.
21 Recombinant DNA Technology Summary of Recombinant DNA technology process:This portion of the DNA is then coupled to a carrier molecule.The hybrid DNA is introduced into a chosen cell for reproduction and synthesis.
22 Recombinant DNA Technology Transformation and Antibiotic SelectionTransformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign DNA.
23 Recombinant DNA Technology Transformation and Antibiotic SelectionThere are more aggressive techniques for inserting foreign DNA into eukaryotic cells. For example, through electroporation.Electroporation involves applying a brief (milliseconds) pulse high voltage electricity to create tiny holes in the bacterial cell wall that allows DNA to enter.
24 Recombinant DNA Technology Plasmids and Antibiotic resistancePlasmids were discovered in the late sixties, and it was quickly realized that they could be used to amplify a gene of interest.A plasmid containing resistance to an antibiotic (usually ampicillin) or Tetracycline, is used as a vector.
25 Recombinant DNA Technology The gene of interest (resistant to Ampicillin) is inserted into the vector plasmid and this newly constructed plasmid is then put into E. coli that is sensitive to ampicillin.( Text bk:Pg 58)The bacteria are then spread over a plate that contains ampicillin.
26 Recombinant DNA Technology Plasmids and Antibiotic resistanceThe ampicillin provides a selective pressure because only bacteria that have acquired the plasmid can grow on the plate.Those bacteria which do not acquire the plasmid with the inserted gene of interest will die.
27 Recombinant DNA Technology Plasmids and Antibiotic resistanceAs long as the bacteria grow in ampicillin, it will need the plasmid to survive and it will continually replicate it, along with the gene of interest that has been inserted to the plasmid .
28 Recombinant DNA Technology Fig 3.3 (a).Selecting a Gene in a plasmid and Antibiotic selection.
29 Recombinant DNA Technology Assignment: For above procedure,Read Transformation of Bacterial cells and Antibiotic selection pg 61.
30 Recombinant DNA Technology Human Gene cloningOnce inside a bacterium, the plasmid containing the human cDNA can multiply to yield several dozen replicas.
32 Recombinant DNA Technology Reading materials:Summary of Recombinant DNA and Cloning (Fig. below):Isolation of two kinds of DNATreatment of plasmid and foreign DNA with the same restriction enzymeMixture of foreign DNA with plasmids
33 Recombinant DNA Technology Addition of DNA ligaseIntroduction of recombinant plasmid into bacterial cellsProduction of multiple gene copies by gene cloning
34 Recombinant DNA Technology Summary of Recombinant DNA and Cloning (Fig.):
35 Recombinant DNA Technology This segment is "glued" into place using an enzyme called DNA ligase.The result is an edited, or recombinant, DNA molecule.
36 Recombinant DNA Technology When this recombinant plasmid DNA is inserted into E. coli, the cell will be able to process the instructions to assemble the amino acids for insulin production.
37 Recombinant DNA Technology More importantly, the new instructions are passed along to the next generation of E. coli cells in the process known as gene cloning.Assignment: Human gene cloning pg 63
38 Recombinant DNA Technology Fig: Inserting a DNA sample into a Plasmid