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CCHEA Creation Seminar 01/17/08 CCHEA Creation Seminar 01/17/08 Presented by David A. Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T.

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Presentation on theme: "CCHEA Creation Seminar 01/17/08 CCHEA Creation Seminar 01/17/08 Presented by David A. Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T."— Presentation transcript:

1 CCHEA Creation Seminar 01/17/08 CCHEA Creation Seminar 01/17/08 Presented by David A. Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. Background graphic courtesy of Mike Riddle, Answers in Genesis Contains photos taken by the author at various locations, and other pictures as noted Presented by David A. Prentice, M.Ed., M.A.S.T. Background graphic courtesy of Mike Riddle, Answers in Genesis Contains photos taken by the author at various locations, and other pictures as noted

2 PART 2: Does it Really Matter Whether or Not We Came From Apes?

3 The Biblical Origin of Humans: Theistic Evolution: (also known as “progressive creation”) The first humans were a pair of highly evolved apelike creatures into whom God placed souls. They came from biological parents who were slightly less advanced than they were. Since death had been here for billions of years, they had nothing to do with bringing it into the world. From birth, they were destined to die. Theistic Evolution: (also known as “progressive creation”) The first humans were a pair of highly evolved apelike creatures into whom God placed souls. They came from biological parents who were slightly less advanced than they were. Since death had been here for billions of years, they had nothing to do with bringing it into the world. From birth, they were destined to die. Atheistic Evolution: Humans evolved by chance. There is no such thing as an eternal soul or spirit. Atheistic Evolution: Humans evolved by chance. There is no such thing as an eternal soul or spirit. The first man’s body was made miraculously from the dust of the earth. The first woman was made miraculously from part of his body. If Adam had not sinned, he and Eve would have lived forever. The first man’s body was made miraculously from the dust of the earth. The first woman was made miraculously from part of his body. If Adam had not sinned, he and Eve would have lived forever.

4 WHAT IN THE WORLD DO “APE- MEN” HAVE TO DO WITH THE GOSPEL? WHAT IN THE WORLD DO “APE- MEN” HAVE TO DO WITH THE GOSPEL? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

5 THE CLEAREST STATEMENT OF THE GOSPEL: Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. (1 Cor. 15:1-8) THE CLEAREST STATEMENT OF THE GOSPEL: Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. (1 Cor. 15:1-8)

6 Paul’s Defense of The Gospel (1 Cor. 15) Paul’s Defense of The Gospel (1 Cor. 15) Some denied the Future resurrection (v. 12) - the Promise of the Gospel. Paul’s reply (v ) - this removes our Present hope - the Power of the Gospel. Paul’s explanation for why Jesus had to die (v , 45): The fall of Adam in the Past shows the Purpose of the Gospel. For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. (v ) And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit. (v. 45) Some denied the Future resurrection (v. 12) - the Promise of the Gospel. Paul’s reply (v ) - this removes our Present hope - the Power of the Gospel. Paul’s explanation for why Jesus had to die (v , 45): The fall of Adam in the Past shows the Purpose of the Gospel. For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. (v ) And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit. (v. 45) If death was here before man sinned, then Adam was a myth. If the First Adam was a myth, then what do you need a Last Adam for? Jesus died because of something that never happened!

7 NO DEATH BEFORE ADAM Gen. 1: And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which [is] upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which [is] the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein [there is] life, [I have given] every green herb for meat: and it was so. Gen. 3:17 - And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed [is] the ground for thy sake... Rom. 8: For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected [the same] in hope, Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now. Gen. 1: And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which [is] upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which [is] the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein [there is] life, [I have given] every green herb for meat: and it was so. Gen. 3:17 - And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed [is] the ground for thy sake... Rom. 8: For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected [the same] in hope, Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now.

8 NO DEATH BEFORE ADAM Isa. 11:6-8 - The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice’ den. Rom. 5: Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned... Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come... For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, [which is] by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many. 1 Cor. 15:21-22, 45 - For since by man [came] death, by man [came] also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam [was made] a quickening spirit. Isa. 11:6-8 - The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice’ den. Rom. 5: Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned... Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come... For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, [which is] by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many. 1 Cor. 15:21-22, 45 - For since by man [came] death, by man [came] also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam [was made] a quickening spirit.

9 But what about people who claim to believe in both God and evolution? It’s not the God of the Bible! Their idea of God is that he started the universe billions of years ago, then go out of the way and let everything run by evolution. SO WHAT’S WRONG WITH THAT?

10 EVOLUTION EVOLUTION You can’t have it both ways! CREATION CREATION Death and struggle led to the existence of man. Man was the direct cause of death and struggle.

11 AN ATHEIST ON THE MEANING OF EVOLUTION Christianity has fought evolution because... evolution destroys utterly and finally the very reason Jesus’ earthly life was supposedly made necessary. Destroy Adam and Eve and the original sin, and in the rubble you will find the sorry remains of the son of god. (sic)...It becomes clear now that the whole justification of Jesus’ life and death is predicated on the existence of Adam and the forbidden fruit he and Eve ate. Without the original sin, who needs to be redeemed? Without Adam’s fall into a life of constant sin terminated by death, what purpose is there to Christianity? None. Christianity has fought evolution because... evolution destroys utterly and finally the very reason Jesus’ earthly life was supposedly made necessary. Destroy Adam and Eve and the original sin, and in the rubble you will find the sorry remains of the son of god. (sic)...It becomes clear now that the whole justification of Jesus’ life and death is predicated on the existence of Adam and the forbidden fruit he and Eve ate. Without the original sin, who needs to be redeemed? Without Adam’s fall into a life of constant sin terminated by death, what purpose is there to Christianity? None. G. Richard Bozarth, “The Meaning of Evolution,” The American Atheist, Sept. 1978, p. 30 G. Richard Bozarth, “The Meaning of Evolution,” The American Atheist, Sept. 1978, p. 30

12 WHAT MOST PEOPLE THINK: Evolution is science... Creation is religion.

13 From June 5 - July 5 of 2007, I was privileged to go to four countries in Africa (South Africa, Zambia, Kenya, and Uganda) to teach on the subject of The Bible and Science. My focus was specifically on the accuracy of the creation account in Genesis.

14 The places I spent most of my time

15 Evolutionary indoctrination is everywhere. From the BATHROOM at the “Cradle of Human- kind” museum in Sterkfontein, S. Africa: Evolutionary indoctrination is everywhere. From the BATHROOM at the “Cradle of Human- kind” museum in Sterkfontein, S. Africa:

16 WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO “KNOW” SOMETHING? WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO “KNOW” SOMETHING? 1. Personal Experience through the five senses. I know a bee sting hurts; I know how to ride a bike. 1. Personal Experience through the five senses. I know a bee sting hurts; I know how to ride a bike. 2. Reliance on Authority. I know the sun is 93 million miles away; Jesus loves me, this I know, for the Bible tells me so. 2. Reliance on Authority. I know the sun is 93 million miles away; Jesus loves me, this I know, for the Bible tells me so. 3. Logic. I know 2 million + 2 million = 4 million, even though I’ve never counted that high. I know I have a brain, even though I’ve never seen it. 3. Logic. I know 2 million + 2 = 4 million, even though I’ve never counted that high. I know I have a brain, even though I’ve never seen it. 4. Feeling or Intuition. I know she’s the one for me; I know God has called me to the ministry. 4. Feeling or Intuition. I know she’s the one for me; I know God has called me to the ministry. 5. Wishful Thinking (you really want it to be true) I just know I’m going to win the lottery! 5. Wishful Thinking (you really want it to be true) I just know I’m going to win the lottery! 6. Bluffing (lying) - you try to persuade others for an ulterior motive. You should buy these tickets from me because I know this team is going to the Super Bowl this year; I know evolution is a fact! 6. Bluffing (lying) - you try to persuade others for an ulterior motive. You should buy these tickets from me because I know this team is going to the Super Bowl this year; I know evolution is a fact!

17 Everybody knows that toilets swirl the other direction in the southern hemisphere, right?

18 THE PREHISTORIC PAST: THE PREHISTORIC PAST: 1. No living person has personal experience. 1. No living person has personal experience. 2. There are no eyewitness accounts except the Bible, which is unacceptable to skeptics. 2. There are no eyewitness accounts except the Bible, which is unacceptable to skeptics. SO HOW DO WE “KNOW” ABOUT THE BEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY. SO HOW DO WE “KNOW” ABOUT THE BEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY.

19 IF man evolved from apes, your brain evolved from an ape brain. IF man evolved from apes, your brain evolved from an ape brain. IF your brain evolved from an ape brain, your logic evolved from ape logic. IF your brain evolved from an ape brain, your logic evolved from ape logic. HOW DO YOU KNOW IT EVOLVED RIGHT? Maybe you’re not even asking the right questions! HOW DO YOU KNOW IT EVOLVED RIGHT? Maybe you’re not even asking the right questions! Evolution is only logical if you are a modified ape. Evolution is only logical if you are a modified ape. IS IT LOGICAL TO BELIEVE IN EVOLUTION?

20 Use the basic ideas of Initial Disorganization versus Initial Complexity to make predictions in as many areas as possible: Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Biology, Paleontology, Geology, etc. Whichever set of predictions better fits what we observe is much more likely to be correct. HOW TO SET UP MODELS:

21 Logical Implications of Creation and Evolu- tion Concerning Fossil Apes and Humans: 1. If we evolved from some apelike ancestors, it would have taken millions of years. We should find a great many fossils of the transitional steps. 2. If humans were created as humans and apes were created as apes, we should find a systematic pattern of gaps in the fossil record.

22 HOW DO YOU MAKE A FOSSIL? 1. Bury something quickly so it doesn’t rot. 2. Make sure the right kind of minerals are in the mud or water. 3. Apply lots of heat and pressure. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE? CHICKEN BONES: ? OIL: ? HOW DO YOU MAKE A FOSSIL? 1. Bury something quickly so it doesn’t rot. 2. Make sure the right kind of minerals are in the mud or water. 3. Apply lots of heat and pressure. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE? CHICKEN BONES: ? OIL: ?

23 You may have heard that it takes millions of years to make a fossil. Wrong! Chicken bones have been turned into mineralized fossils in laboratories in 5 to 10 years. Organic garbage (banana peels, etc.) has been turned into crude oil, otherwise known as “fossil fuel,” in as little as 20 minutes. Spark plugs are often used as fishing sinkers in Durban, S. Africa. The water has such a high concentration of minerals that they be- come coated and look like fossils in just a few years! Spark plugs are often used as fishing sinkers in Durban, S. Africa. The water has such a high concentration of minerals that they be- come coated and look like fossils in just a few years! Courtesy of Joshua Gilbert Spark plugs from Durban harbor

24 IF THERE WAS A WORLDWIDE FLOOD, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT TO FIND? Billions and billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the whole earth, even on top of the highest mountains. WHAT DO WE ACTUALLY FIND? Billions and billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the whole earth, even on top of the highest mountains! IF THERE WAS A WORLDWIDE FLOOD, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT TO FIND? Billions and billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the whole earth, even on top of the highest mountains. WHAT DO WE ACTUALLY FIND? Billions and billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the whole earth, even on top of the highest mountains!

25 Africa is the site of many well-known fossil finds, used to support evolution. Africa is the site of many well-known fossil finds, used to support evolution. Above and left: Fossils of Bradysaurus, a “mammal- like reptile” from the Karoo Supergroup in the southwest of South Africa Right: Neanderthal skull from the “Cradle of Human- kind” museum in Sterkfontein, near Pretoria Above and left: Fossils of Bradysaurus, a “mammal- like reptile” from the Karoo Supergroup in the southwest of South Africa Right: Neanderthal skull from the “Cradle of Human- kind” museum in Sterkfontein, near Pretoria

26 1. First type of cell -- unknown. 2. Transitions from first cells to known kingdoms (animal, plant, etc.) unknown. 3. Transition between single- celled and multi-celled organisms unknown. 4. Origin of every type of plant unknown. 5. Origin of soft-bodied invertebrates of the Ediacaran Fauna unknown. 6. Origin of vertebrates unknown. 1. First type of cell -- unknown. 2. Transitions from first cells to known kingdoms (animal, plant, etc.) unknown. 3. Transition between single- celled and multi-celled organisms unknown. 4. Origin of every type of plant unknown. 5. Origin of soft-bodied invertebrates of the Ediacaran Fauna unknown. 6. Origin of vertebrates unknown. THE FOSSIL RECORD – Nothing BUT missing links! THE FOSSIL RECORD – Nothing BUT missing links! Artist’s conception of extinct Lepidodendron tree - New Orleans Botanical Garden

27 THE FOSSIL RECORD – Nothing BUT missing links! There is no known transitional form from There is no known transitional form from fish to amphibian (sea to land). Eusthenopteron fossil – Houston Museum of Nat. Hist. Proposed candidates such as Eusthenopteron, the coela- canth, or Tiktaalik have fins loosely embedded in muscle. Amphibians that have legs (such as Ichthyostegalia) have joints firmly attached to bone. There are no known in-between types of joints. In addition, the supposed transitional forms resembled only one of the nine orders of amphibians. There is no candidate for the ancestors of the other eight orders, some of which have no legs at all! Proposed candidates such as Eusthenopteron, the coela- canth, or Tiktaalik have fins loosely embedded in muscle. Amphibians that have legs (such as Ichthyostegalia) have joints firmly attached to bone. There are no known in-between types of joints. In addition, the supposed transitional forms resembled only one of the nine orders of amphibians. There is no candidate for the ancestors of the other eight orders, some of which have no legs at all!

28 HOW ABOUT APE-MEN? HOW ABOUT APE-MEN?

29 “There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjectures out of such a trifling investment of facts.” Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi “There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjectures out of such a trifling investment of facts.” Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi

30 Logical Implications of Creation and Evolu- tion Concerning Fossil Apes and Humans: 1. If we evolved from some apelike ancestors, it would have taken millions of years. We should find a great many fossils of the transitional steps. 2. If humans were created as humans and apes were created as apes, we should find a systematic pattern of gaps in the fossil record.

31 PRIMATE FOSSILS: FEW AND FAR BETWEEN. All the fossils of alleged human ancestors known today “would barely cover a billiard table.” (J. Reader, New Scientist, March 26, 1981) “...all the physical evidence we have for human evolution can still be placed, with room to spare, inside a single coffin.” (L. Watson, Science Digest, May 1982) PRIMATE FOSSILS: FEW AND FAR BETWEEN. All the fossils of alleged human ancestors known today “would barely cover a billiard table.” (J. Reader, New Scientist, March 26, 1981) “...all the physical evidence we have for human evolution can still be placed, with room to spare, inside a single coffin.” (L. Watson, Science Digest, May 1982)

32 PRIMATE CLASSIFICATION Order Primates Suborder Prosimii Suborder Prosimii Suborder Anthropoideia Suborder Anthropoideia Lemurs/ Lorises Lemurs/ Lorises Tarsiers Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys – Capuchin, squirrel monkey, howler, etc.) Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys – Capuchin, squirrel monkey, howler, etc.) Catarrhines Old World Monkeys – (baboons, mandrills,macaques, etc.) Old World Monkeys – (baboons, mandrills,macaques, etc.) Apes Humans

33 Chimpanzee Gorilla ManOrangutan Gibbon ??? Common ancestor ??? Common ancestor of Asian apes of African apes ????? Common ancestor of African apes and man ??? Common ancestor of hominoids Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys ??? Common ancestor of higher primates Lemurs/Lorises Tarsiers ??? Common ancestor of all primates ??? Transition from insectivores ??? Insectivore ancestor Question marks represent unknown forms. OUR EVOLUTIONARY “FAMILY TREE”

34 ERA PERIODEPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous 144 million Jurassic 206 million Triassic 248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) The Geologic (Evolutionary) Time Scale Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

35 LOWER MAMMAL ANCESTOR OF PRIMATES

36 ANCESTOR OF PROSIMIANS UNKNOWN! Lemurs, Lorises, and Tarsiers all appear in the fossil record in Eocene rocks (the same layer as tree shrews), suddenly and fully formed, with no known ancestry. None of them have evolved since then. Smilodectes, an Eocene lemur Artist’s conception of Smilodectes (Denver Museum of Natural History)

37 Chimpanzee Gorilla ManOrangutan Gibbon ??? Common ancestor ??? Common ancestor of Asian apes of African apes ????? Common ancestor of African apes and man ??? Common ancestor of hominoids Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys ??? Common ancestor of higher primates Lemurs/Lorises Tarsiers ??? Common ancestor of all primates - UNKNOWN ??? Transition from insectivores - UNKNOWN ??? Insectivore ancestor - UNKNOWN Question marks represent unknown forms. OUR EVOLUTIONARY “FAMILY TREE”

38 ERA PERIODEPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous 144 million Jurassic 206 million Triassic 248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) The Geologic (Evolutionary) Time Scale Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

39 ANCESTOR OF MONKEYS UNKNOWN! OLD WORLD MONKEYS include: Guenon monkeys, mangabeys, macaques, rhesus monkeys, drills, mandrills, baboons, langurs, proboscis monkeys, guereza monkeys, etc. NEW WORLD MONKEYS include: Capuchins, squirrel monkeys, spider monkeys, howler monkeys, marmosets, etc. Skull of Aegyptopithecus, believed to be an Oligocene monkey (Denver Museum)

40 Chimpanzee Gorilla ManOrangutan Gibbon ??? Common ancestor ??? Common ancestor of Asian apes of African apes ????? Common ancestor of African apes and man ??? Common ancestor of hominoids Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys ??? Common ancestor of higher primates - UNKNOWN Lemurs/Lorises Tarsiers ??? Common ancestor of all primates - UNKNOWN ??? Transition from insectivores - UNKNOWN ??? Insectivore ancestor - UNKNOWN Question marks represent unknown forms. OUR EVOLUTIONARY “FAMILY TREE”

41 ERA PERIODEPOCH Approx. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous 144 million Jurassic 206 million Triassic 248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) The Geologic (Evolutionary) Time Scale Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

42 ANCESTOR OF HOMINOIDS (APES AND MAN) UNKNOWN!

43 Chimpanzee Gorilla ManOrangutan Gibbon ??? Common ancestor ??? Common ancestor of Asian apes of African apes – UNKNOWN - UNKNOWN ????? Common ancestor of African apes and man ??? Common ancestor of hominoids - UNKNOWN Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys ??? Common ancestor of higher primates - UNKNOWN Lemurs/Lorises Tarsiers ??? Common ancestor of all primates - UNKNOWN ??? Transition from insectivores - UNKNOWN ??? Insectivore ancestor - UNKNOWN Question marks represent unknown forms. OUR EVOLUTIONARY “FAMILY TREE”

44 WHY WOULD HUMANS EVOLVE FROM APES? There would have to be a series of beneficial mutations in DNA, each building on all the ones from previous generations. There are about 3 billion base pairs in human DNA. Even if it really were 98% similar to that of chimps, there would still be 60 million genetic differences! There would have had to be millions of beneficial mutations in both the human and chimpanzee lines. Though some mutations benefit individuals, we have never seen a single one that helped the affected species, or that added any genetic information. There are about 3 billion base pairs in human DNA. Even if it really were 98% similar to that of chimps, there would still be 60 million genetic differences! There would have had to be millions of beneficial mutations in both the human and chimpanzee lines. Though some mutations benefit individuals, we have never seen a single one that helped the affected species, or that added any genetic information.

45 WHY WOULD HUMANS EVOLVE FROM APES?

46 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HUMANS AND APES CharacteristicHUMANSAPES 1. Shape of cranium (skull)Large and vaultedFlattened 2. Mastoid process (bone structure Prominent Missing or behind ears) inconspicuous 3. Canine teeth Small Large 4. Diastema (gap where canine teeth fit None Present into opposite jaw) 5. Simian shelf on lower jaw None Present 6. Lips Prominent Thin 7. Vertebral column 3 curves 2 curves 8. Spines on cervical vertebraeShort Long 9. Arm length Relatively short Relatively long 10. Nipples Lower Higher 11. BreastsPronounced Flattened 12. Body hairRelatively little Relatively much 13. Hair distribution Mostly on front Mostly on rear of body 14. Male reproductive organ No bone Contains bone 15. Pelvis Deep, bowl-shaped Shallow, flattened 16. Gluteus maximus (muscles that enableBulging Flattened upright stance) 17. Linea aspara (roughened ridge on Present (prominent) Absent femur where muscles attach) 18. Feet Different from handsSame as hands 19. Dental arcade (curvature of toothParabolicU-shaped arrangement) Source: Dr. Wilbert Rusch, Academic Dean of Concordia College, on “Crossroads” television program

47 WHAT IS A “SPECIES?” Pictures from andrethegiant.com and rotttentomatoes.com Pictures from andrethegiant.com and rotttentomatoes.com To a biologist, a species is a group whose mem- bers cannot breed with any other group. However, it is impos- sible to do breeding experiments on extinct animals. Researchers have to simply guess whether they belong to different species, based on how different the specimens seem to be. If you had only bones to go by, would you guess that Andre the Giant (7 ft 4 in) and Verne Troyer (2 ft 8 in) were the same species? They are! There is no way to be sure whether differences in extinct creatures mean they belonged to different species, or just showed normal variation within the same species. There is no way to be sure whether differences in extinct creatures mean they belonged to different species, or just showed normal variation within the same species.

48 Candidates for Human Ancestors Through the Years Rudapithecus Ramapithecus Dryopithecus Oreopithecus Limnopithecus Kenyapithecus “Nebraska Man” (Hesperopithecus) (Hesperopithecus) “Piltdown Man” (Eoanthropus) (Eoanthropus) Rudapithecus Ramapithecus Dryopithecus Oreopithecus Limnopithecus Kenyapithecus “Nebraska Man” (Hesperopithecus) (Hesperopithecus) “Piltdown Man” (Eoanthropus) (Eoanthropus) Named from a few bones - regarded as too apelike after more evidence was discovered Mistake Fraud Artist’s conception of “Nebraska Man” (Hesperopithecus haroldcookii) based on a single tooth that turned out to belong to an extinct pig. (Illustrated London News, June 24, 1922) Artist’s conception of “Nebraska Man” (Hesperopithecus haroldcookii) based on a single tooth that turned out to belong to an extinct pig. (Illustrated London News, June 24, 1922) Fragments supposedly found in a gravel pit in England; despite obvious file marks, accepted as an ape-man for over 40 years until the hoax was exposed. Fragments supposedly found in a gravel pit in England; despite obvious file marks, accepted as an ape-man for over 40 years until the hoax was exposed. Cast of the Piltdown skull at Sterkfontein Human skull fragments (stained to look old) Filled in by imagination Ape jaw (filed to fit skull)

49 Proconsul Proconsul skull – Denver Museum Miocene – probably a small chimp Sivapithecus Miocene - identical to orang- utan (also to Ramapithecus) Australopithecus (“Southern Ape,”a.k.a. Paranthropus / Zinjanthropus) Appears suddenly, with no known ancestry. Regarded as an evolutionary dead end – too committed in the direction of apes to be a human ancestor The “Taung Child” – juvenile Australopithecus africanus (discovered 1924) Paranthropus robustus female, dis- covered 1994 (also known as Austra- lopithecus and Zinjanthropus) “Littlefoot” – most complete specimen of Australopithecus known (discovered 1998) Skull photos by the author- “Cradle of Humankind” museum, Sterkfontein, S. Africa Candidates for Human Ancestors Through the Years

50 WHAT ABOUT “LUCY?” 1988 photo of A. afarensis skel- eton at Denver museum (9 year old boy for size comparison) (Australopithecus afarensis) The same skeleton in Look how much more complete it seems, even showing Lucy walking upright. The changes are NOT based on new discoveries. The light colored “bones” – most of the display, including the feet -- are plaster, based on imagination! (Denver museum) Human feet are different from hands; ape feet are like hands. No one has found a complete foot of Australo- pithecus, but the most complete one, from “Littlefoot” in Sterkfontein (see right), is typical of apes. There is no evidence that “Lucy” had human-type feet.

51 WHAT IF Australopithecus WALKED UPRIGHT? Modern human skullAustralopithecus skull The skull of Australo- pithecus is not at all like humans. Bonobo skull Living Bonobo (photo by Kabir Bakie – from Wikimedia Commons) Professional scientists recognize that Australopithecus is not a human ancestor, but an extinct ape similar to a chimpanzee. Instead, it is extremely similar to that of the bonobo, a type of pygmy chimpanzee that spends a fair amount of time walking upright.

52 Homo habilis (handy man”) However, thirteen years later Leakey found, in his words, “bones virtually indistinguishable from those of modern man” at a lower level. Thus, true humans must have occupied the area before Australopithecus or H. habilis. Many scientists recognize that H. Habilis was nothing more than a variant of Australopithecus. First unearthed in at the Olduvai Gorge in Kenya. Placed in the human genus by discoverer Louis Leakey not because of anatomical features but because the bones were found with tools, which only humans are known to make. Photos by the author – Sterkfontein museum Artist’s conception of habilis Compare H. habilis to this Australo- pithecus skull (Karoo Natl. Park, S. Africa) Candidates for Human Ancestors Through the Years

53 First found in 1899 in the banks of the Solo River in Java, East Indies (In- donesia) and called Pithecanthropus or “Java Man.” Unusually small brain, but within the range of humans. Undisputed Homo sapiens leg bones found in the same place, so it’s not older than humans. Later reclassified H. erectus. THE ONLY CANDIDATE LEFT: Artist’s conception of “Java Man” Photo by the author – Sterkfontein museum Homo erectus (“upright man”) Java skullcap

54 H. erectus was next discovered in a cave in China in the 1920s and 1930s. At first it was called Sinanthropus or “Peking man” – later recognized to be the same species as “Java Man” and reclassified to its present status. The skulls were small, but within human range. No bomes were found other than the skulls, which were all bashed in. Undisputed human skeletons were later found in the same cave. Many suspect cannibalism. “Peking Man” skull, now classified as H. Erectus – National Museum, Xi’an, China THE ONLY CANDIDATE LEFT: Homo erectus (“upright man”) Photo by the author

55 H. erectus has also been found in Kenya and Aus- tralia. Again, the average skull size is between the average size of apes and humans. Some creationists think that it was a different type of apelike creature; however, most think it was a variant of humans, perhaps a degenerate form. Regardless, everywhere H. erectus has been found, so have modern-type human skeletons. Rather than being a human ancestor, it was a contemporary. Photos by the author – Sterkfontein museum THE ONLY CANDIDATE LEFT: Homo erectus (“upright man”)

56 WHY IS THERE UNCERTAINTY ABOUT Homo erectus? Only a few bones are available, so we can’t tell much about it for sure. The features we can examine are within the normal range of H. sapiens. WHY NOT A HUMAN ANCESTOR? Whatever it was, Homo erectus was a contemporary of true humans, not an ancestor. Whatever it was, Homo erectus was a contemporary of true humans, not an ancestor. 1. Most of the places H. erectus has been found, so have undisputed H. sapiens. 2. H. erectus’ brain size was well within the normal human range. 3. Its other skeletal features are also within the normal human range. 1. Most of the places H. erectus has been found, so have undisputed H. sapiens. 2. H. erectus’ brain size was well within the normal human range. 3. Its other skeletal features are also within the normal human range.

57 Homo ergaster -- the name used for many of the African H. erectus fossils Homo ergaster -- the name used for many of the African H. erectus fossils Artist’s conception of H. ergaster Artist’s conception of Heidelbergensis Homo heidel- bergensis -- considered archaic, but accepted as true H. sapiens Homo heidel- bergensis -- considered archaic, but accepted as true H. sapiens Photos by the author- Sterkfontein museum Candidates for Human Ancestors Through the Years

58 HOW ABOUT NEANDERTHAL MAN? Named for the Neander Valley in Europe. Some had skeletal deformities characteristic of arthritis, rickets, or acromegaly, but most did not. On average, Neanderthals were bigger than modern humans and had thicker bones and bigger brains -- physically superior to modern man. They buried their dead in what seem to be religious rituals. Named for the Neander Valley in Europe. Some had skeletal deformities characteristic of arthritis, rickets, or acromegaly, but most did not. On average, Neanderthals were bigger than modern humans and had thicker bones and bigger brains -- physically superior to modern man. They buried their dead in what seem to be religious rituals. Right: Artist Zdenek Burian’s very apelike conception of Neanderthal (1960). Below right: his conception of a Neanderthal burial Left: Neanderthal skull at the Sterkfontein museum Below Left: The latest artist’s conception of Neanderthal (2007) at Sterkfontein – no longer apelike! Many regard them as a subspecies (separate race) of H. sapiens.

59 WEREN’T NEANDERTHALS CAVE-MEN? What does it take to be a cave man? You have to be a man and live in a cave. Unusual living arrangements have nothing to do with evolution. Some of the people of Israel lived in caves (Judges 6:2, 1 Sam. 13:6, Job 30:6 et al.). Some still do. That doesn’t mean they are ape-men! What does it take to be a cave man? You have to be a man and live in a cave. Unusual living arrangements have nothing to do with evolution. Some of the people of Israel lived in caves (Judges 6:2, 1 Sam. 13:6, Job 30:6 et al.). Some still do. That doesn’t mean they are ape-men!

60 Named for a cave at Cro-Magnon, France, where the fossils were first located. Named for a cave at Cro-Magnon, France, where the fossils were first located. Physically superior to modern humans; regarded as true man. Sophisticated in culture. Elaborate cave art, tools, etc. Burian’s conception of Cro-Magnon Man in his tent village CRO-MAGNON MAN

61 Cro- Magnons are known for cave art of animals and nature scenes. Some- times they painted them- selves. Cave painting at Lascaux, France show- ing a man and three boys. Note clothing on all four and shoes on at least three. (Denver Museum) Detail of boys (above) and of man with bow (right) Detail of boys (above) and of man with bow (right)

62 HOW ABOUT “FLORES MAN?” Every few years the news media report that the “missing link” between apes and man has finally been found. (But wait – that’s what you said last time. Were you lying then?) Every few years the news media report that the “missing link” between apes and man has finally been found. (But wait – that’s what you said last time. Were you lying then?) The latest candidate is from Flores, Indonesia; nicknamed “Hobbit” because the specimens were less than four feet tall. Now recog- nized as fully human. Nothing more exotic than a group of pygmies.

63 Chimpanzee Gorilla ManOrangutan Gibbon ??? Common ancestor ??? Common ancestor of Asian apes of African apes – UNKNOWN - UNKNOWN ????? Common ancestor of African apes and man - UNKNOWN ??? Common ancestor of hominoids - UNKNOWN Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys ??? Common ancestor of higher primates - UNKNOWN Lemurs/Lorises Tarsiers ??? Common ancestor of all primates - UNKNOWN ??? Transition from insectivores - UNKNOWN ??? Insectivore ancestor - UNKNOWN Question marks represent unknown forms. OUR EVOLUTIONARY “FAMILY TREE”

64 THE PREHISTORIC PAST: 1. No living person has personal experience. 2. There are no eyewitness accounts except the Bible, which is unacceptable to skeptics. SO HOW DO WE “KNOW” ABOUT THE BEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY. SO HOW DO WE “KNOW” ABOUT THE BEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY.

65 WHAT DO FOSSILS TELL US ABOUT EVOLUTION? There are fossil apes, there are fossil men, but there are no fossil (or living) Ape-Men. Logically, we should conclude that evolution didn’t happen with humans! WHAT DO FOSSILS TELL US ABOUT EVOLUTION? There are fossil apes, there are fossil men, but there are no fossil (or living) Ape-Men. Logically, we should conclude that evolution didn’t happen with humans!

66 THE BEST EXPLANATION FOR THE ORIGIN OF HUMANS: “Let us make man in Our image.” THE BEST EXPLANATION FOR THE ORIGIN OF HUMANS: “Let us make man in Our image.”

67 For copies of all materials, go to or For copies of all materials, go to or


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