Most states reduce (but not usually eliminate) property-holding requirements for voting Slavery challenged (esp. in Quaker Philadelphia) Laws discriminated against freed blacks and slaves. No states South of Pennsylvania abolish Why not? Impractical to have the discussion Would have slowed the process down. Extending doctrine of equality to women? Not yet
Women were charged with keeping the nation’s conscience She would educate herself Cultivate the virtues demanded by the republic in their husbands, daughters and sons
1776: Continental Congress tells states to draft new constitutions Commonalities: Defined the powers of government Said authority came from the people
Pennsylvania’s constitution: abolished property owning as a test of citizenship allowed all male taxpayers to vote & hold office created a unicameral legislature with complete power.
John Adams created a system of government that dispersed authority assigned lawmaking, administering, & judging to separate branches. bicameral legislature the upper house, filled with property owning men, would check the power of the popular majorities in the lower house.
States seized British lands Stimulus to manufacturing Nonimportation agreements made it hard to get manufactured goods. After war US was barred from trading with GB and West Indies (British Navigation laws) But we could now trade with foreign nations (even China!)
Problems: States’ debts Speculation, profiteering created some financial landfalls Avg person prob worse off after the war Economic/social atmosphere = unhealthy Newly rich class of profiteers Some rich people lost forutnes
1786 GB manufacturing hits America again, so? Well, young manufacturers suffered this ruthless competition
The Articles of Confederation were passed by Congress in November 1777 & ratified in 1781 provided for a loose confederation in which each state retained its independence as well as the powers & rights not “expressly delegated” to the United States.
“Firm league of friendship” Naming of the league--United States of America Importance of sovereignty and independence for each state Retention of powers not expressly delegated to national government by states
Creation of national unicameral (one house) legislature Selection of delegates Decision by individual states One vote per state Selection of President of Congress by congressional delegates annually
Chartered the Bank of North America (Robert Morris, superintendent of finance) Why? Hoped to stabilize the inflated Continental currency Hoped to centralize control of army expenditures and foreign debt Some state legislatures refused to support the increase in the Confederation’s powers NY & RI rejected an import duty
Congress wanted to use the land to raise add’l revenue for the government Establishes the Northwest Territory North of the Ohio River b/w the Appalachians and the Mississippi River Fearful of settlers allying themselves with Spain in order to export their crops via the Mississippi
The Confederation Congress resolved the conflicting land claims of the states by creating a “national domain” west of the Appalachian Mountains. Between 1781 and 1802 all of the seaboard states with western land claims ceded them to the national government. In the Northwest Ordinances, the Confederation Congress laid out the rules for establishing territories with democratic political institutions in this domain and declared that all territories were open to settlement by citizens from all the states.
The Ordinance of 1784 (written by T.Jefferson): Called for the admission of states as soon as the population of a territory of the smallest existing state
Land Ordinance of 1785 (dealt w/squatters) Required that the lands be surveyed before settlement Mandated a grid system that would allow the work to be done quickly. Specified that 50% of the townships be sold in single blocks of 23,040 acres each Only large-scale investors & speculators could afford The rest in parcels of 640 acres, which only well-to-do farmers could afford
Northwest Ordinance of 1787: Creation of 3 to 5 territories that would eventually become the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan & Wisconsin Initially Congress shall appoint a governor & judges to administer a new territory When adult free men reached 5000 they could elect their own legislature When population = 60,000 residents could write a republican constitution & apply to join the Confederation
Handling of three major functions by committees Foreign affairs Receiving of Ambassadors Military Raising of an army Request to states for troops Financial Borrowing of money Establishment of value currencies Fixing of uniform standard of weights and measures
Inability of Congress to lay and collect taxes Inability of Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce Need for agreement by nine states for any addition Need for unanimous agreement among the states to amend the Articles
Absence of a National Judiciary and Executive One vote per state regardless of population Retention by states of all powers not expressly given to Congress No power to act against an individual state Election of delegates for a one year term
Bankruptcy of national government Receipt of only 1/4 of expected $10 million from states Inability to pay interest on foreign loans Defeat of proposed tariff on imports by one vote Trade wars among the states Charging of state fees for permission to trade Closing of ports to foreign trade
Continuing inflationary spiral Trade wars among the states Refusal of some states to accept other states’ currencies Fear of further uprisings after Shays' Rebellion
Background: In the East, peace brought recession…WHY? The British Navigation Acts barred Americans from trading with the British West Indies Low-priced British goods flooded American markets. Many states allowed debtors to pay in installments, while other states printed more paper currency in an effort to extend credit
Captain Daniel Shays: Provoked by no debtor-relief legislation in Massachusetts Led a rebellion To preserve its authority, Massachusetts passed a Riot Act outlawing illegal assemblies. Winter of 1786–87: Shays’s army dwindled & was dispersed by Governor James Bowdoin’s military force.
What did this mean? Many families who had suffered while supporting the war felt that they had traded one kind of tyranny for another others feared the fate of the republican experiment.
Attendance: men from all states except Rhode Island Adoption of rules of organization and procedure: One vote for each state delegation Majority vote to pass measures Requirement of secrecy no official record of proceedings Knowledge of actions of proceedings from James Madison’s personal notes
Selection of George Washington as President Redefinition of the purpose of the Convention Writing of a new document
White Protestant males Men of wealth many with some college education Men of distinction future presidents Future state governors Future Chief Justices of Supreme Court Revolutionary War Veterans Previous service in Colonial Assemblies and/or past Congresses and/or State Constitutional Conventions
Need for stronger national government Belief in republican form of government Agreement with John Locke’s “Theory of Rights” Support for Montesquieu’s separation of powers
Support of big states for The Virginia Plan: Bicameral Legislature: Representation by population Election procedures: Direct election of lower house members by the people Additional powers beyond Articles: Overriding of vetoes Use of force to make a state obey the national law Right to legislate whenever “separate states are incompetent”
One Term Executive: Selection by legislature Power to execute the law National Judiciary: Selection by legislature Power to veto legislative acts “Council of Revision” Combination of Executive and members of the Judiciary Power to veto congressional legislation
Support by small states for the New Jersey Plan (Paterson) Unicameral legislature Equal representation for each state Additional powers to the Articles Enforcement of tax assessments Regulation of interstate commerce Plural Executive: selection and removal by Congress Federal Judiciary: One Supreme Court or Tribunal Appointment by Executives
MAJOR STUMBLING BLOCK BETWEEN THE VIRGINIA AND NEW JERSEY PLANS = ISSUE OF REPRESENTATION
Bicameral legislature Representation by population in the House of Representatives (national census taken every 10 years) Equal representation (two) for each state in the Senate
Support in southern states for counting 3/5s of slaves for representation. Support in northern states for counting 3/5s of slaves for taxation
Granting of power to regulate foreign and interstate commerce to Congress Support from northern business interests Fear of southerners Support for export as well as import duties by the national government (major export of the nation-southern tobacco) Intervention by Congress to stop the slave trade. Assurances to the South: Prohibition on export duties no prohibition of the slave trade until 1808
Indirect selection of one Executive by an Electoral College Unlimited number of four year terms Enumerated powers
Selection of Senators by state legislatures Selection of President by Electoral College Difficulty of amending process
Need for acceptance by nine states to go into effect (important to have support from big states) Fairly easy passage in Massachusetts & Pennsylvania Close vote in New York & Virginia
Spokesmen for a strong national government James Madison Alexander Hamilton John Jay Tactics: Emphasis on weaknesses of Articles of Confederation and resulting problems Publishing letters to the people in newspapers to turn the tide in New York, Later compiled into The Federalist Papers Request for vote by state conventions rather than state legislatures or a referendum Insistence on a vote on the entire document not individual sections
Spokesmen for states’ rights Patrick Henry John Hancock Richard Henry Lee Samuel Adams Tactics: Emphasis on the powers given to the national government at the expense of the states Revival of fears of a strong Executive Threat of the loss of rights with the absence of a Bill of Rights
Selection of New York city as temporary capital Election and inauguration of George Washington as President Ratification by 1790 of all thirteen states