Presentation on theme: "Stream Macroinvertebrates December 2009. The Bear Creek Watershed Virtual Tours were created with funds provided by the Bear Creek Watershed Education."— Presentation transcript:
Stream Macroinvertebrates December 2009
The Bear Creek Watershed Virtual Tours were created with funds provided by the Bear Creek Watershed Education Partners through a grant from the Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board with additional funding from Oregon Trout’s Healthy Waters Institute. THANKS TO: Kathleen Donham Brandon Goldman Jefferson Nature Center Maya Cross-Killingsworth
Vertebrate or invertebrate? What is a vertebrate? An animal with a spine (vertebrae). What is an invertebrate? An animal without a spine.
Macro means: you can see the animal with your naked eye. Vertebrate or invertebrate?
On Earth: all life forms vs. invertebrates
On Earth: invertebrates vs. invertebrates
So, what is a macroinvertebrate? An animal without a backbone that can be seen with the naked eye (without a microscope).
The group of invertebrates with the most species is the Arthropods Arthro + pod Arthro = jointed appendages Pod = legs
Among the arthropods, the group with the most species is the insects. What makes an arthropod an insect? Three body parts Six legs Wings Antennae Specialized mouthparts
Life cycle of an insect Complete metamorphosis Incomplete metamorphosis Complete metamorphosis means that the insect has a pupa or cocoon stage before becoming an adult.
Stream macroinvertebrates live in freshwater streams. The macroinvertebrates in the stream are usually insects in the larva stage of life. Some of them will spend many months in the stream as a nymph or larva and only a short time as adults out of water. The larvae emerge from the stream at different times of year and will then reproduce.
Stream macroinvertebrates are important to study because they can tell humans about the health of the stream. Some stream macroinvertebrates are sensitive to pollution and other changes to their environment. The presence or absence of sensitive macroinvertebrate species tells people about the health of the creek. How?
Mayflies There are many species of mayflies found in the streams of the Bear Creek watershed. Mayfly nymphs usually have three tails. To remember, hold your 3 fingers like the letter “M” for mayfly. Nymph
Mayfly nymphs are strong swimmers and feed on algae. Adults do not have working mouth parts and do not eat. As adults, they may only live a few days. Mayfly diversity declines as streams are degraded. Adult
Caddisflies Caddis fly nymphs are known for the cases that many species build using silk (like butterflies) and bits of sand, pine needles, or vegetation fragments. Caddisfly larvae feed in a variety of ways; some capture food in nets, others scrape algae or shred leaf litter. Nymph
Many free-living caddisfly larvae do not build cases and are predators. They do not have a case because they need to move quickly to capture other animals for food. Some caddisflies are very sensitive to human disturbance; others are more tolerant. Adult
Stoneflies Stoneflies nymphs have two tails. Adult males and females emerge from the water to mate in midsummer and locate each other by drumming with their abdomens. Nymph
Stoneflies are also called salmonflies and are predators that hide and stalk their prey between stones and cobble. Stoneflies look similar to mayflies but are usually larger and stockier. Adult
Note to user: Objective of presentation: brief introduction to stream macroinvertebrates. Most appropriate for: Ages 8 and up How to integrate this presentation into other activities: – Draw examples of insect life cycles. – Learn about local insects and the habitats they live in. Draw pictures of these insects with their physical characteristics and in their habitats. – Go to a stream and examine stream macroinvertebrates. – Find and identify insects in local vegetated areas.