2 Benthic Macroinvertebrates Used as bioindicator organismsThe presence or absence of these organisms in a stream can be used to reveal the overall ecological quality of the water.Generally, unpolluted waters support a greater variety of freshwater macros than polluted water.
3 Life Cycles Incomplete metamorphosis (3 stages) Eggs to Nymph to AdultInclude mayflies, stoneflies, dragonflies, damsalflies, true bugsComplete metamorphosis (4 stages)Eggs to Larva to Pupa to AdultInclude flies, beetles, caddisflies, dobsonflies
4 Functional Feeding Groups Based on their feeding methods and adaptationsThey are an important part of the food webThey are a primary link between the base of the food chain and the larger animals such as fish
5 ShreddersThe first group of macroinvertebrates to break down the detritus (leaves that have started to decompose).Includes craneflies, some caddisflies, stoneflies, sowbugs, and scuds.They break the detritus down into fine particles.
6 CollectorsDrifting downstream the fine particles become food for the collectors.They use various methods of either filtering or gathering of fine particles. Filterers use fan-like filaments near the mouth to capture food particles.Includes some mayflies, midges, and net-spinning caddisflies.
7 Grazers (also called Scrapers) Feed on the algae that grow on the surface of rocks.Includes some caddisflies, the water penny (a beetle), and certain midges and mayflies.
8 PredatorsThe shredders, collectors, and grazers are a food source for the predators.Includes dobsonfly, dragonfly.Predators have large powerful mouth parts for grasping prey.
9 1. Bacteria + Leaves. = Detritus (slimy. leaves) 2. Shredders break 1. Bacteria + Leaves = Detritus (slimy leaves) 2. Shredders break down leaves 3. Collectors filter and gather leaf parts 4. Grazers eat algae 5. Predators feed on all macros
10 Water Quality Indicators Each macroinvertebrate belongs in a Taxa - a group indicating the level of pollution tolerance