3EggTrout eggs have black eyes and a central line that show healthy development. Egg hatching depends on the water temperature in an aquarium or in a natural habitat.
4AlevinOnce hatched, the trout have a large yolk sac used a food source. Each alevin slowly begins to develop adult trout characteristics. An alevin lives close the gravel until it “buttons up.”
5FryButtoning-up occurs when alevin absorb the yolk sac and being to feed on aquatic insects. Fry swim close to the water surface, allowing the swim ladder to fill with air and help the fry float through water.
6Fingerling and ParrWhen a fry grows to 2-5 inches, it becomes a fingerling. When develops large dark markings, it then becomes a parr. Local schools that participate with Cumberland Valley Chapter Trout Unlimited classroom trout raising project will release the Trout into its natural habitat at the fingerling stage.
7JuvenileIn the natural habitat, a trout avoids predators, including wading birds and larger fish, by hiding in underwater roots and brush. As a juvenile, a trout resembles an adult but is not yet old or large enough to spawn.
8AdultIn the adult stage, female and male Trout spawn in fall and winter. Trout turn vibrant in color during the spawning and then lay eggs in fish nests, or redds, in the gravel. The life cycle of the Trout continues into the egg stage again.
10A Successful Fly-Fisher must know about what trout eat. Entomology (Bugs)A Successful Fly-Fisher must know about what trout eat.
11Entomology (bugs) Purpose Show how the fly-fisher can use knowledge of aquatic crittersImprove fishingImprove fly selection
12Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Aquatic = pertaining to waterEspecially organisms living in fresh waterMacro___ = prefix meaning “large”able to see with naked eyeInvertebrate = animal without a backboneInsects, crustaceans, worms, others
13What you need to know Trout do NOT speak Latin Trout can’t identify macroinvertebratesTrout know what looks good to eatTrout know what food items act likeTrout face upstream . . .aquatic macroinvertebrates drift downstreamtrout eat macroinvertebrates
14Bug Characteristics Shape – what does it look like? Size – how big or small is it?Color – what color or colors is it?Habitat – where does it live in nature?Behavior – what does it act like?
15Adults have same Shape Mayfly adults hold wings up like sails Stonefly adults fold wings flat over backCaddisfly adults fold wings like a pup tent
16Match the natural with size & color variations of the same fly pattern Choose fly pattern style based on type of water to be fishedVary the color & size to match the naturals of the locale you fishUse the appropriate stripping action or dead drift to match the natural’s behavior
17Flies represent naturals Dry Fly – fished on water’s surfaceAdult: mayfly (also dun), caddis, stonefly, dragonfly, terrestrial (grasshopper, ant, spider)Nymph – fished on or near bottomLarval stage: mayfly, stonefly, caddis, etc.Scud, sowbug (NOT aquatic insects)Midge – fished in surface filmAdult midge & emerging midgeSoft-hackle – fished just under surface filmPupal stage of caddis & emerging mayfly dunStreamer – fished in water column or bottom“minnow,” leech, crayfish
19Mayflies Egg – larva (nymph) – emerger – dun – adult Diverse shapes of nymphsDun is a pre-adult with wingsAdults have no mouthparts or digestive tractsAdult female spinners are susceptible to trout while laying eggsAdult males & females may be different sizes and colors
20Mayfly larva (nymph) Single set of wing pads 2 or 3 tails (usually 3) Gills on abdominal segments
214 mayfly larva body types SwimmersSlow-mod waterCrawlersMod-fast waterClingersSwift waterBurrowersPlacid water
22Behavior more important than fly pattern of mayfly nymph Swimmers in slow-mod. waterMove with bursts of rapid up & down flips, moving from a few inches to a few feetCrawlers in mod.-fast water with weedbeds or rocks with nooks & cranniesPoor swimmers; drift with current while trying to get to the bottomClingers in swift water, like rifflesGood at staying on or under rocksMigrates to slower water before emerging as dunsBurrowers in placid waterLive in burrows until emerging to surface to become duns
25Stoneflies egg – larva (nymph) with many moltings – adult Mature larvae migrate to stream edgesKnown as “clean water” insectsNot active swimmersClings under rocks & crevices in swift waterMay drift with the current, esp. before emergence
26Stonefly larva (nymph) Two distinct sets of wing padsAlways 2 tails – set wide apartNo gills or gills may resemble undulating tufts under thorax
29Caddisflies egg – larva (on bottom) – pupa (rises to surface) – adult Live as larvae most of the yearAs pupa one to several weeksAs adults 1-3 weeks (unable to eat)Extremely diverse group, 2 major kindsCase-building (most common)Free-living
30Caddisfly larva No wing pads No tails May have stubby appendages with hooks at the end of abdomenSmallish head; fleshy segmented abdomenLooks like a caterpillar with 6 legs in thorax area
32Midges Egg – larva (2 or 3 moltings) – pupa – adult Life cycle I week to 1 yearAbundant and diverse - makes up for small sizeTrue flies – have only two wings
33Midge larva No wing pads No tails (may have knobby protrusions at rear end)No legs apparentTiny headElongated, maggot-like shapeSegmented abdomen (sometimes with pairs of fleshy knobs)Can’t swim, but grub around on the bottom
34Midge pupae most important to the fly fisher Looks like a hunched-back midge larvaWings bunched in a dark bundle at the thoraxHead barely visible; body tapersMay have gas trapped in pupal shuckMay have distinct tuft at head end