Presentation on theme: "1 Session TWO. 2 Life Cycle of Trout 3 Egg Trout eggs have black eyes and a central line that show healthy development. Egg hatching depends on the water."— Presentation transcript:
1 Session TWO
2 Life Cycle of Trout
3 Egg Trout eggs have black eyes and a central line that show healthy development. Egg hatching depends on the water temperature in an aquarium or in a natural habitat.
4 Alevin Once hatched, the trout have a large yolk sac used a food source. Each alevin slowly begins to develop adult trout characteristics. An alevin lives close the gravel until it “buttons up.”
5 Fry Buttoning-up occurs when alevin absorb the yolk sac and being to feed on aquatic insects. Fry swim close to the water surface, allowing the swim ladder to fill with air and help the fry float through water.
6 Fingerling and Parr When a fry grows to 2-5 inches, it becomes a fingerling. When develops large dark markings, it then becomes a parr. Local schools that participate with Cumberland Valley Chapter Trout Unlimited classroom trout raising project will release the Trout into its natural habitat at the fingerling stage.
7 Juvenile In the natural habitat, a trout avoids predators, including wading birds and larger fish, by hiding in underwater roots and brush. As a juvenile, a trout resembles an adult but is not yet old or large enough to spawn.
8 Adult In the adult stage, female and male Trout spawn in fall and winter. Trout turn vibrant in color during the spawning and then lay eggs in fish nests, or redds, in the gravel. The life cycle of the Trout continues into the egg stage again.
9 The Trout Body
10 Entomology (Bugs) A Successful Fly-Fisher must know about what trout eat.
11 Entomology (bugs) Purpose Show how the fly-fisher can use knowledge of aquatic critters Improve fishing Improve fly selection
12 Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Aquatic = pertaining to water Especially organisms living in fresh water Especially organisms living in fresh water Macro___ = prefix meaning “large” able to see with naked eye able to see with naked eye Invertebrate = animal without a backbone Insects, crustaceans, worms, others Insects, crustaceans, worms, others
13 What you need to know Trout do NOT speak Latin Trout can’t identify macroinvertebrates Trout know what looks good to eat Trout know what food items act like Trout face upstream... aquatic macroinvertebrates drift downstream aquatic macroinvertebrates drift downstream trout eat macroinvertebrates trout eat macroinvertebrates
14 Bug Characteristics Shape – what does it look like? Size – how big or small is it? Color – what color or colors is it? Habitat – where does it live in nature? Behavior – what does it act like?
15 Adults have same Shape Mayfly adults hold wings up like sails Stonefly adults fold wings flat over back Caddisfly adults fold wings like a pup tent
16 Match the natural with size & color variations of the same fly pattern Choose fly pattern style based on type of water to be fished Vary the color & size to match the naturals of the locale you fish Use the appropriate stripping action or dead drift to match the natural’s behavior
17 Flies represent naturals Dry Fly – fished on water’s surface Adult: mayfly (also dun), caddis, stonefly, dragonfly, terrestrial (grasshopper, ant, spider) Adult: mayfly (also dun), caddis, stonefly, dragonfly, terrestrial (grasshopper, ant, spider) Nymph – fished on or near bottom Larval stage: mayfly, stonefly, caddis, etc. Larval stage: mayfly, stonefly, caddis, etc. Scud, sowbug (NOT aquatic insects) Scud, sowbug (NOT aquatic insects) Midge – fished in surface film Adult midge & emerging midge Adult midge & emerging midge Soft-hackle – fished just under surface film Pupal stage of caddis & emerging mayfly dun Pupal stage of caddis & emerging mayfly dun Streamer – fished in water column or bottom “minnow,” leech, crayfish “minnow,” leech, crayfish
18 Mayfly Life Cycle
19 Mayflies Egg – larva (nymph) – emerger – dun – adult Diverse shapes of nymphs Dun is a pre-adult with wings Adults have no mouthparts or digestive tracts Adult female spinners are susceptible to trout while laying eggs Adult males & females may be different sizes and colors
20 Mayfly larva (nymph) Single set of wing pads 2 or 3 tails (usually 3) Gills on abdominal segments
21 4 mayfly larva body types Swimmers Slow-mod water Slow-mod water Crawlers Mod-fast water Mod-fast water Clingers Swift water Swift water Burrowers Placid water Placid water
22 Behavior more important than fly pattern of mayfly nymph Swimmers in slow-mod. water Move with bursts of rapid up & down flips, moving from a few inches to a few feetMove with bursts of rapid up & down flips, moving from a few inches to a few feet Crawlers in mod.-fast water with weedbeds or rocks with nooks & crannies Poor swimmers; drift with current while trying to get to the bottomPoor swimmers; drift with current while trying to get to the bottom Clingers in swift water, like riffles Good at staying on or under rocksGood at staying on or under rocks Migrates to slower water before emerging as dunsMigrates to slower water before emerging as duns Burrowers in placid water Live in burrows until emerging to surface to become dunsLive in burrows until emerging to surface to become duns
23 Various mayfly families
24 Stonefly Life Cycle
25Stoneflies egg – larva (nymph) with many moltings – adult Mature larvae migrate to stream edges Known as “clean water” insects Not active swimmers Clings under rocks & crevices in swift water Clings under rocks & crevices in swift water May drift with the current, esp. before emergence May drift with the current, esp. before emergence
26 Stonefly larva (nymph) Two distinct sets of wing pads Always 2 tails – set wide apart No gills or gills may resemble undulating tufts under thorax
27 Various stonefly families
28 Caddis Fly Life Cycle
29 Caddisflies egg – larva (on bottom) – pupa (rises to surface) – adult Live as larvae most of the year As pupa one to several weeks As pupa one to several weeks As adults 1-3 weeks (unable to eat) As adults 1-3 weeks (unable to eat) Extremely diverse group, 2 major kinds Case-building (most common) Case-building (most common) Free-living Free-living
30 Caddisfly larva No wing pads No tails May have stubby appendages with hooks at the end of abdomen Smallish head; fleshy segmented abdomen Looks like a caterpillar with 6 legs in thorax area
31 Various caddisfly families
32 Midges Egg – larva (2 or 3 moltings) – pupa – adult Life cycle I week to 1 year Abundant and diverse - makes up for small size True flies – have only two wings
33 Midge larva No wing pads No tails (may have knobby protrusions at rear end) No legs apparent Tiny head Elongated, maggot-like shape Segmented abdomen (sometimes with pairs of fleshy knobs) Can’t swim, but grub around on the bottom
34 Midge pupae most important to the fly fisher Looks like a hunched-back midge larva Wings bunched in a dark bundle at the thorax Head barely visible; body tapers May have gas trapped in pupal shuck May have distinct tuft at head end
35 Damsels & Dragons
36 Water Beetles
37 Water bugs Water boatman Water strider
38 Fishfly, Dobsonfly,& Alderfy Larva (Dobsonfly larvae are also known as hellgrammites)
39 Scuds & Sowbugs are crustaceans, NOT aquatic insect larvae Scuds flat side-to-side Sowbugs flat top-to-bottom Fast swimmers – short bursts Poor swimmers – dead drift