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1 AEB 2008 A revision guide for GCSE Geography To advance slide click here

2 What is Economic Geography? You may have heard the phrase that money makes the world go around…. Well in some ways it does. Or at least it has a big effect on how the countries in the world work. Economic Geography is the study of how countries make and spend their money and how that affects the world we live in.

3 But that’s not all… Economic systems bring together physical and human resources. Most countries have to trade in order to get all the resources they need. Trade between countries is not always fair and has lead to great differences in the levels of development in countries around the world. It is these factors that have brought about the world we live in today that we study in Economic Geography.

4 What is Economic Geography? Economic Geography is the study of how different countries make and spend their money. You will see how economic systems bring together both physical and human factors. We will see how the earths resources are used and how trade between countries for these resources is not always fair. We will also be looking at the impact of economic change

5 How to use this Revision Session for Economic Geography Click on the topic of your choice on the following slide Read through the animated section to the end Then choose either to return to the main menu and choose another topic, or exit and try a quiz. Finally look at the example GCSE questions on Economic Geography and have a go at being an examiner!

6 Regional differences DevelopmentTypes of Industry Growth and Decline of Industry Trade and Aid Click on the economic topic of your choice

7 Types of Industry There are 4 main types of industry Primary – The collection of raw materials Secondary – Manufacturing a product Tertiary – Providing a service Quaternary – Research an development

8 Chose which type of industry you wish to study… PRIMARYSECONDRYTERTIARYQUATERNARY Click on the blue box of your choice Transnational Corporations TNCs Click here to leave the section on type of industry

9 Primary Industry Primary Industries are those that involve the collection of Raw Materials. (Raw materials are things that are found in or on the earth that haven’t been processed or changed). The raw materials can be quarried, mined or drilled from below the earths surface e.g. oil drilling and coal mining. They can be grown e.g farming and forestry They can be collected from the sea - fishing

10 A good example of a Primary Industry to look at in more detail is farming. Arable – growing crops Pastoral – Rearing animals Mixed – both animals and crops on the same farm Horticulture – Flowers, fruit, vegetables often in greenhouses Commercial – Growing to sell the produce Subsistence – Growing to provide food for the family Extensive – Using large area with little labour eg. Hill sheep farming Intensive – Small amount of land using a lot of labour or technology Sustainable – Farming that causes minimal impact on the environment There are several different types of farming….

11 We can think of industry as a system with … INPUTSPROCESSES OUTPUTS Let us look at the Primary Industry of farming to illustrate this point. Labour Seed Animals Manure Soil Rain Sunshine Planting Weeding Harvesting Tending stock Food Seed Manure If the outputs are all put back into the system as inputs this creates a ‘closed system’. Seed, manure and food energy

12 Farming as a system Farming can be a closed system where all the outputs are put back into the system as inputs. INPUTSPROCESSOUPUTS Seeds, Manure Subsistence farming where farmers only grow food to feed themselves are a good example of this type of system. Or farming can be an open system where the outputs are sold and part of the money made pays for new inputs (the rest is profit). INPUTSPROCESSOUPUTS Money from sales PROFITS Commercial farming in MEDC countries are examples of open systems

13 How farming effects the land Farming takes up more land than any other human activity. It has a great impact on the natural environment e.g soils and water. Often these impacts are very harmful. Large areas of rainforest are cleared to provide room for cattle ranching and the soils rapidly loose their fertility. Overuse of land in countries with growing populations can lead to desertification and deforestation Farming can change a natural ecosystem into an Agro- ecosystem (one that is controlled by the farmer)

14 Farming is a risky business Risks can be Physical.. Floods wash away soils or ruin crops Droughts kill plants and animals Diseases – can affect both plants and animals Earthquakes or Volcanoes ruin valuable farmland. Risks can be Economic.. Changes in the market cause a drop in demand for types of produce Quotas – governments may put limits on certain products New technology may increase costs or cause unemployment. These effects or those of a bad harvest caused by bad weather and much more keenly felt in the pooper LEDC countries where farmers are often only existing just above the poverty line. Such an event may cause them to dip below the poverty line. Farmers in MEDC countries are more able to survive such dips.

15 Pattern of farming in the UK Arable: Growing crops Location: East coast eg East Anglia Reasons: Fertile soil Flat land Low lying well drained Less rainfall more sunshine The pattern of farming in the UK is largely determined by the relief of the land and the quality of the soil. Let’s look at the different types in turn.. Arable Farming

16 Livestock Rearing Livestock: Cattle and sheep for meat and wool Location: On highland eg mountains of Scotland and Wales Reason: Nothing else will grow there except grass, not flat, poor soil, poor accessibility. Only need to gather livestock in a few times per year.

17 Dairying Dairying: Cows kept for milk etc. Location/Reason: Nearer centres of location – not such high land but not flat enough to grow things eg South Wales, West Midlands

18 Horticulture Horticulture: Flowers fruit and veg – often in greenhouses Location: Small pockets around centres of population e.g. around London Reason: Need to get produce to market quickly or will spoil. Doesn’t require lots of room (intensive) In the south – warmer and sunnier

19 Mixed Farming Mixed: Crops and animals on the same farm Location/Reason: Everywhere else! ie where its not mountainous, not the best quality soils but has a mixture of land that will grow grass and some that can support crops – often in rotation.

20 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Introduced in 1962 it regulates farming inside the EU. Provides grants and subsidies for farmers Gives farmers a quota (a set amount of a particular crop to produce) CAP AIMS Increase food supplies for all EU countries Keep farmers in their jobs Guaranteed prices of selected products Make farming more intensive Subsidies so they can compete with cheap imports CAP IMPACTS Positive Food supplies and jobs secured Farmers incomes went up Created other related jobs Impacts - Food surpluses - loss of hedgerows - more nitrates and pesticides  water cycle Constantly being reviewed and updated. Changes include Support farmers who use fewer chemicals and plant more hedgerows Encourage farmers to diversify e.g. farm shop, golf courses.

21 Click here to choose another type of industry Click here to return to main menu

22 Secondary Industry Secondary industries are those where a product is made or processed. It is often known as the Manufacturing industry.

23 We can again look at this type of industry as a system. INPUT PROCESSOUTPUT Raw materialsManufactured goods

24 Our inputs and outputs are different from those we looked at with farming INPUTS Raw materials Energy Labour Transport costs Capital Government Grants PROCESSES Work by hand Work my machines Heating Adding chemicals, water or other materials OUTPUTS Goods for sale to people Goods for sale to other companies Waste products

25 To make a factory profitable… The costs of all the inputs and processes must be less than the money made from selling the final product. One way to help this is to keep the costs low. This may effect where the industry is located Inputs & Processes Outputs

26 Factors that influence location Click on the blue boxes to reveal the reasons

27 A good example of a Secondary Industry is that of the iron and steel industry 3 main raw materials: Iron ore Limestone Coke Steel is a vital material at the heart of the modern world. Essential in industry, agriculture and transport. In the home, in sport and in building, packaging and engineering, steel products are everywhere. Steel also forms the basis of the machinery for the making of nearly every product we possess. Without it, wood and glass cannot be shaped, stone cannot be mixed, other metals cannot be melted and formed and plastics cannot be manufactured. Without steel our modern world would not exist. Chairman of British Steel

28 Steel Making first developed n the UK during the industrial revolution in the 1800s Depends on bulky raw materials (coal and iron). Also produces bulky products so transport costs can be high. Often located near to the coal fields or close to a port as it is cheaper to transport these goods by sea e.g Port Talbot South Wales British Coalfields Scotland Northumberland Lancashire Yorkshire, Derbyshire South Wales For more about the British Steel industry see the section on the growth and decline of industries

29 A more modern example of a manufacturing or secondary industry is that of a car manufacturer. Again looking at this as a system…. INPUTS Steel, glass, plastic, power supplies, robots, labour, capital, upholstery, rubber, government incentives PROCESSES Welding, testing, operating machinery, administration, research, factory maintenance OUTPUTS Cars, Wages, profit, waste, A lot of these more modern manufacturing plants have replaced the older more traditional industries such as iron and steel in the UK. (See later section on growth and decline of industry).

30 Click here to choose another type of industry Click here to return to main menu

31 Tertiary Industry This is the largest group of industries in MEDCs. It involves the service industries such as teaching, nursing, police and retail.

32 Tourism is the world’s fastest growing industry (More money and more leisure time have helped this increase) There is some form of tourism in nearly every country in the world It gives many LEDCs the chance to improve their economies Better transport networks have opened up the world A good example of a Tertiary Industry to look at is Tourism.

33 Tourism Multiplier Effect Foreign visitors attracted Spend money (eg. hotels, on trips, souvenirs) Jobs created Extra food needed Local farmers grow more food Local people with higher wages spend more money Industry grows to meet demand More wealth generated from taxes to pay for hotels, roads, airports etc. Growth of construction industry – hotels, roads, airports etc.

34 So Tourism can help an economy grow, but there is a negative side too. Only 45% of revenue from tourism reaches the host country (kept by foreign tour operators) Tourism can grow so large and popular that it destroys the environment the tourists come to see. Tourist may not respect or even disturb the local cultures.

35 Click here to choose another type of industry Click here to return to main menu

36 Quaternary Industry The newest and smallest industrial sector where scientists and researchers investigate and develop new products.

37 Footloose industries Footloose industries are not toed to particular sources of materials or markets, and have a free choice of locations. These industries tend to be either Tertiary or Quaternary industries.

38 Click here to choose another type of industry Click here to return to main menu

39 Transnational Corporations (TNC) Many MEDCs have set up factories in LEDC countries in an effort to maximise profits. These are called Transnational because they are companies that have operations is several nations. Examples of TNCs include Nike, Adidas or many other clothing firms

40 Advantages of TNCs To the TNC Cost are low – cheap labour so profits are high Raw materials are local Few health and safety regulations that could be expensive to meet To the LEDC Jobs provided for local people Higher wages than some other local work Can use money on education and health care Develops links with other countries To MEDCs Shoppers can buy goods more cheaply in shops

41 Disadvantages of TNCs To the LEDC TNCs can close factories without warning and move to other countries Workers work long hours in poor conditions Products are no use for local markets Can have a bad effect on the environment To MEDCs Cheaper imports mean that local factories in the MEDC may close and lead to unemployment An increase in imports can affect the trade balance (see later section on trade and aid)

42 Click here to choose another type of industry Click here to return to main menu

43 That completes this section on the types of Industry Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Economic Geography. Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt

44 Growth and Decline of Industry Industry has changed a lot in the last 50 years especially in MEDC countries. This has had an impact on the growth of cities, the distribution of population and had a social and economic effect.

45 Changes in employment structure in the UK In 1950 the employment structure in the UK looked like this:- However, today it looks very different. Let us investigate some of the reasons for this.

46 Let’s first look at the Location of Industry The location of industry is influenced by a number of factors:- The location of raw materials and power supplies The availability of a workforce (supply of labour) The location of the market (where they need to sell the goods) Market influences or changes and government policies Let us see how these work and how they have lead to a change in the employment structure.

47 Location of raw materials Industries grew up near their raw materials to reduce transport costs especially if they were bulky. This lead to different areas specialising in certain industries.

48 Availability of a workforce A factory can only locate where there are enough people available to work for them. They may need to be specialised with particular skills (this may lead to similar industries grouping together) Or they may need large numbers of unskilled workers (who they will train up themselves) Labour costs vary around the country so industries will try to locate where these are cheapest to keep their costs down.

49 Location of Market If the cost of transporting raw materials cost more than the finished product the industry will locate close to them. However, if the finished product is more expensive to transport (it may be larger or more expensive to insure) then the cheaper location will be nearer the market.

50 Market influences and Government policies Some industries will locate within the country that they market the product to avoid import taxes. Governments may encourage certain industries into certain areas to help with unemployment problems Land may be cheaper in some areas than others and this will effect input costs.

51 Decline of Traditional Manufacturing Many of the traditional ‘heavy’ manufacturing industries (like iron and steel) have declined and been replaced by the ‘light’ assembly industries (like electronics) Changes in technology have lead to old methods being replace by robots and computer controlled production.

52 Competition from other countries with lower costs (such as cheap labour) means that some companies loose out to those places that can make and sell the products cheaper. This lead to a reduction in the percentage of people employed in the UK in secondary industry falling from 40% to 26% from the 1970s to the 1990s.

53 British Iron and Steel Industry The production of Iron and Steel requires large quantities of bulky raw materials. Improved technology has reduced the amounts we need (for example to produce 1 ton of iron in 1880 we needed 10 tonnes of coal where as we only needed ½ ton in 1990).

54 However, most of the local raw materials have become exhausted and now have to be imported. This expense put together with high labour costs her have meant that it is now cheaper to import our steel from other countries than to produce it here. (eg from Korea and other Far east countries) This has lead to the closure of many steel plants around the country (as you will see later in a slide about the changing location of industry in the UK) and caused great unemployment problems in these areas.

55 Domino Effect This shows what knock on effects can happen after the closing down of an industry in an area. Factory closes downTransport firms loose business and close Local shops loose trade (people have less money to spend) Unemployment rises People leave area to find work – property prices fall Area becomes run down, crime can increase and area declines.

56 Factory opens upTransport get new business Local shops start to thrive as people now have more money to spend Unemployment falls People move into the area – property prices rise This is why the government will encourage new businesses to set up in depressed areas by giving them grants and other incentives. An example of this is the high-tech industries such as Sony and LG moving into South Wales. These effects can be reversed if new industry opens up in the area

57 Growth of High Tech Industries High Tech industries are those that developed due to Information Technology and use micro-electronics. They are sometimes referred to as the SUNRISE industries. These do not need to be near raw materials as their input materials are usually small and easier transported. They tend to prefer to be near fast transport links an are often built away from old industrialised areas on greenfield sites. These are FOOTLOOSE industries that can locate anywhere. A good example of an area of this type of industry is M4 corridor.

58 Changing locations of industry in the UK Let us see how this has changed the locations of industries within the UK To see more on this go to section on Regional Differences. 1970s1990s

59 Regional Economic change - EU We have seen how regions that used to house heavy industry have experienced a decline. The map shows the main industrial regions of Western Europe. This ‘Heavy Industry Triangle include areas now in decline that qualify for EU grants to try to attract new industry into the area.

60 The EU’s Economic Core This is the rich economic centre of Europe. It is sometimes called Europe’s ‘Hot Banana’. Areas away from the core are said to be on the periphery and tend to be less economically well developed.

61 Growth of industrialisation in LEDCs The graph shows typical employment structures for MEDC and LEDC countries. However, we are now seeing the emergence of NICs (Newly Industrialised Countries.

62 Newly Industrialised Countries (NICs) These sometimes called ‘tiger economies’ have grown due to investment from other countries, an abundance of cheap labour and the development of new skills especially in the electronics field. Examples of such countries are to be found in south east Asia – South Korea, Taiwan and China

63 That completes this section on the Growth and Decline of Industry Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Economic Geography. Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt

64 Development The Development of a country is a measure of how mature a country is in terms of its economic growth, social systems and infrastructure

65 How we measure Development The Development of a country is often measured by its wealth or GDP. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the total income of a country per year in $ US divided by the number of people in the country. The map on the next slide shows how this was done (Brandt report in the 1970s) to divide the world into ‘rich developed north’ and the ‘poor developing south’.

66 World development based on GDP With the exception of Australia the world could generally be split into the rich north and the poor south.

67 The Human Development Index (HDI) However development is not just about money. Some LEDC countries do have money, but it is kept by a few powerful people Also some GDP is not taken into the calculation as farmers do not make produce to sell, but do have enough to eat. Also there may be a lot of informal jobs where money is exchanged without record. So another system that takes in other factors as well was developed. The HDI is an average score of variables that take into account life expectancy and education as well as GDP.

68 Development Index To see how this can work let’s take a look at some development indices from two very different countries – UK and Ethiopia. GDP Life Expectancy Infant Mortality Rate Calorie intake Energy Used Urban population Literacy rate Number of people per doctor

69 Lets take a look at a few examples of the HDI Country Life expectancy Adult literacyGDP per capita ($) HDI JapanF83 M7799%37, CanadaF83 M7699%19, UKF81 M7499%19, GambiaF56 M5136% MaliF49 M4627% The HDI is an average score of these 3 variables when countries are ranked in order.

70 This gives a different view of world development – see map below. This is more accurate as it takes into account the social side of the development and not just the economic.

71 Global distribution of wealth The world can be divided into richer and poorer countries – 25% of the world’s population live in MEDCs and own 80% of the world’s wealth The ‘development gap’ is the contrast between rich and poor countries. The Development gap has grown for three main reasons Historic Environmental Social-Economic

72 Click on the boxes to reveal some of the terrible facts on the unfair distribution of wealth in the world. Use 7/8 of the world’s resources Eat 2/3 world’s grain Life expectancy 70 years 86% world’s industry 85% world’s wealth 90% of the world spending on education Life expectancy just 50 years 20% suffer from hunger Only 1/20 of the world’s spending On health ¾ of the world’s population 800 million unable to read or write 5 million children die Each year from diarrhoea The Rich North The Poor South

73 Growth of the Development Gap Historic reasons – some LEDCs are past colonies of richer European countries that took some of their raw materials and when they went left them with little industry or education Environmental reasons – poor climate, poor soils or very few natural resources to trade Social economic reasons – often countries at war, little manufactured goods (have to import them from other countries) and may have borrowed money and now need to pay back the loans

74 This cartoon sums up how the richer MEDC countries have carved up the resources from the LEDC countries causing them great hardship

75 Development Gap This gap may continue to grow:- LEDCs have mainly primary industries and therefore have only cheap goods to sell They have to by most of their expensive manufactured goods from MEDCs. So they have to spend a lot but don’t receive much money.

76 They have to borrow money from MEDCs to finance any development and then pay back the interest on these loans. ‘The total owed by the poorer countries to the richer ones stands at a staggering one trillion pounds’ Friends of the Earth So it borrows more money Has to pay a lot of interest on its loans Next year the country sell minerals and crops to the MEDC as usual The prices of these have dropped So it doesn’t earn as much money as they hoped Which leaves it short of money for imports and development projects The countries can fall into the cycle of debt Click on the boxes to reveal the cycle

77 Closing the Development Gap Although the richer countries have the technology and money and control most of the manufacturing. It is the poorer countries that often provide the raw materials.

78 Closing the Gap This may be achieved in time either by the use of Aid or Investment from the richer countries. For more detail on the types of aid that can be provided see the section on ‘Trade and Aid’

79 ‘The amount of money owed by the poorer countries to the richer ones now stands at a staggering one trillion pounds’ Friends of the earth’ ‘Third World countries want to pay the money back. It’s just that they can’t. If it were only a questions of paying the initial loans, the Third World would have done this many times over. But repaying debt means paying off high interest charges. In 1982 the total amount that the Third World owed to the developed countries was $860 billion. Since then debtor countries have repaid thousands of billions, yet they still owe $2,000 billion’ Oxfam

80 Investment programmes Some countries have developed from LEDCs to NIC (newly industrialised countries) due to investment. They are countries with high populations that provide a motivated cheap work force that attracted investors. They also have a large home market for the goods. However, these growing industries are causing many pollution problems and working conditions can be poor (there is more information about such Multi National Corporations in the ‘Trade and Aid ‘ section)

81 So what is development ? It means change for the better It means a chance of a good education It means justice for everyone It means a chance to earn a good living It means the chance to live a long and healthy life It means freedom from poverty It is the process of change and growth

82 That completes this section on Development Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Economic Geography. Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt

83 Regional Differences We have seen how the wealth and development of the world can vary between countries, but it can also vary within a country.

84 In a previous section we have seen how growth and decline has changed location/distribution of industry in the UK.

85 Regional Economic Change The decline of industry in some areas has lead to depressed areas with high unemployment. But many of these area have become thriving centres of new industry. The government has targeted such areas to attract new industry by giving a range of incentives for new businesses to set up here. These area are known as ‘ASSISTED AREAS’ We can split these Assisted areas into three types: Assisted areas – are areas that need to attract new industry Enterprise zones – focus aid on specific areas of decline such as old inner-city areas eg. London’s docklands Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) aim to make these areas more attractive for economic activity.

86 Growth and decline – South Wales A good example of an assisted area is South Wales South Wales was once famous for its coal and steelworks (using local coal and iron ore), but once these closed down they left areas of high unemployment. The Welsh Development agency offered money to companies to set up in the area. This attracted many high-tech industries such as Sony, Panasonic and LG. Over 300 international companies chose South Wales as the best location in Europe

87 Who wins…. New Industries gain: Large available workforce Area with good transport links A base within the EU so within their main market (no import taxes to pay) Government grants and incentives South Wales gain: New employment providing money New people move into the area attracting more shops to open and house values to rise. Brings new life to an area that was into decline. However, not all of South Wales has benefited. The narrow steep- sided valleys like the Rhondda do not have the space needed to site these new large factories.

88 North South Divide UK The patterns of growth and decline of industry within the UK has lead to a split between the richer south with higher employment and the more depressed regions in the north.

89 Let us look at examples of these differences….

90 The North and West: Higher- unemployment (those employed are generally in manufacturing) infant mortality Lower-Weekly earnings House prices Number of cars The South and East Higher-Weekly earnings House prices Number of cars Employment (mainly in the service industries) Lower-infant mortality

91 This is a pattern that is repeated throughout Europe This map shows differences in GDP throughout the region. The darker the colour the higher the GDP. The areas with the highest GDP are concentrated in the centre of the EU.

92 These areas with low GDP are also generally areas with high unemployment. This map shows the unemployment of different regions in the EU (the darker the colour the higher the unemployment, The highest rate of unemployment are on the edges of the Eu eg. Greece, Spain, and Ireland

93 Contrasting regions in Italy Italy is another good example of a country with a divide between north and south in terms of economic differences.

94 The North – The industrial Heartland – with the large cities of Turin, Genoa and Milan. Reasons for its success: Rich soils and plenty of water – so good for agriculture Large flat plain – room to build factories Better climate – less extreme temperatures Good access to the rest of Europe. The South – it’s problems. Area of steep slopes – difficult to develop. Poor network of roads and rail. More extreme climate Lack of raw materials. Thin dry soils It is mainly a region of agriculture but farming here is difficult. (They do have tourism here) These regional differences have lead to migration from the south to the north of the country (over 4 million people have moved since 1950). The Italian government is trying to attract new industries to the south in the same way we saw about South Wales, but their success has been more limited.

95 That completes this section on Regional Differences Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Economic Geography. Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt

96 Trade and Aid Trade is the buying and selling of goods between countries. Aid is when one country will give help and support to another which may help it to grow or develop.

97 Trade No country provides everything it needs so it has to trade with other countries. Goods that come into a country are called imports Goods that go out from a country are called exports

98 Balance of Trade The difference between the cost of imports and the value of exports is called the trade balance If a country earns more from the sale of its exports than it spends on its imports it is said to have a trade surplus If a country spends more on its imports than it makes from the sale of its exports it is said to have a trade deficit.

99 Global patterns of Trade Most LEDCs export low value raw materials These are then processed by MEDCs who make manufactured goods that have higher profits So MEDCs have a higher share of the total world exports by value. LEDCsMEDCs EXPORTS IMPORTS ‘Cheap’ foods eg tea, coffee, Materials rg rubber, cotton Very few ‘Expensive’ manufactured goods eg. Cars, computer ‘Cheap’ materials that it processes into manufactured goods

100 Trading Groups Many countries of the world belong to trading groups to encourage trade between those countries. These will encourage tariff free trade between them. Examples of these groups are The EU (European Union) NAFTA (North American Free Trade Association – USA Mexico and Canada OPEC (Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries)

101 Free Trade These trade agreements gave an unfair advantage to the MEDCs. In 1994 the World Trade Organisation was set up to encourage free trade between all countries

102 Why trade is not fair to the LEDCs Many of the products we take for granted, such as tea, coffee and chocolate come from poorer countries. These products are quite expensive in the UK, but the people who supply the raw materials only earn a small amount of money. Most of the profit is made by the manufacturers and shops

103 Other Ingredients Cocoa farmer Transport Tax Retailer Manufacturer You pay £1 for a chocolate bar – but where does your money go? 8p 10p 5p 34p 28p 15p Total cost 100p The cost is split between the farmer who spends all year growing and harvesting the cocoa beans the retailer or shop that sells you the bar, the cost of the milk and sugar that are added, the manufacturer who mixes these ingredients and wraps it, transport costs and the tax the government collects. Guess which is which then click on the box to check your answer ? ? ? ? ? ?

104 Fair Trade Fair Trade tries to address these issues by making sure the producers get a fair price for their products. They will advertise this fact on the products that are sold here so you can see if you are buying a fair trade product. They will also tell you their aims

105 A way of doing business that gives the suppliers of the raw materials a fair wage. It also ensures safer working conditions Limits the work done by children Helps set up co-operatives that help the LEDCs process their own raw materials

106 Fair Trade Federation You can find several examples of Fair Trade in action as you go shopping. Products operating under the Fair Trade Federation will display this logo. Let’s look at a couple of examples from packaging on Geobars

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110 Aid Improving the Quality of Life in LEDCs Many people in the UK and other MEDC donate money to improve the quality of life in LEDCs. This may be prompted by national fund-raising activities eg. Comic Relief or in response to a disaster appeal. This money tends to be targeted into specific areas or projects. Most LEDCs also receive larger donations form other sources – there are 3 types Voluntary Aid Bilateral Aid Multilateral Aid

111 Voluntary Aid This has nothing to do with governments and depends on voluntary contributions. Examples of groups that provide voluntary aid include: Oxfam and Action Aid

112 Bilateral Aid This is aid between two countries. It may be a loan of money to an LEDC for a particular project and it does tie that country to the MEDC.

113 Multilateral Aid When rich countries give money to poorer countries through international banks e.g The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund

114 Problems with Aid It can encourage the country to become dependant on donations Many countries that receive the aid have corrupt governments and the money does not always go to the people that need it Aid is only a ‘sticking plaster’ – it covers up a problem for a while but does not solve the cause.

115 Investment programmes In recent years some LEDCs have developed their economies rapidly with outside investment in their manufacturing industries.

116 Trade in the EU There is a lot of trade between countries within the EU. It is the worlds single largest market. Between half and three quarters the trade of most EU countries is within the EU Quota or import duties have limited imports from non-EU countries. This can prove very expensive for some LEDCs. Some countries such as Japan have got around this problem by setting up factories within the EU (e.g. the high-tech industries in South Wales). Many EU countries still trade with former colonies e.g the UK still has strong links with Kenya.

117 That completes this section on Trade and Aid Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Economic Geography. Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt

118 Thank you for using this revision tool to help with your studies of Economic Geography. I hope you have found it useful. Goodbye


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