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Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase

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1 Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase
Chapter 10 Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase

2 Classical Greece (800–350)

3 Minoan Society (@ 2500–1100) Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Phoenicians
Minos — legendary king “Center of Mediterranean trade” Wine, olive oil, and wool → grain, textiles, manufactures Knossos — royal dwellings & tax storehouses Linear A Natural 1700 Thera (present-day Santorini) Foreign 1100

4 Mycenaean Society (@ 1600–1100)
Indo-European invaders descended through the Balkans Assimilated with Minoan culture Linear A → Linear B Construction: fortresses & stone palaces throughout the Peloponnesus Major settlement: Mycenae Military expansion Crete, Sicily, southern Italy

5 Chaos in the Eastern Mediterranean
Military conflicts Trojan War 1200) Various maritime/piratical engagements 1100– 800) Civil disturbances Result: civil unrest, population decline, emigration

6 The Polis Citadel, or fortified state Independent urban centers
Dominated rural areas Levied taxes Political forms Monarchies “Tyrannies” — not necessarily oppressive Early democracies

7 Sparta Peloponnesus Highly militarized and acquisitive society
Expanded during 8th and 7th centuries Subjugated peoples: helots Primarily agricultural serfs (not chattel slaves) In time, outnumbered Spartans 10:1 Led to increasingly militaristic society

8 Spartan Society This . . . not this

9 Spartan Society Relaxation of discipline by 4th century
Austere society Simplicity and frugality Disdained distinctiveness, except in martial matters Militaristic education Boys removed from families at age seven Rigorous military training / lived in barracks Active duty until age 30 Girls also underwent exacting physical regimen Relaxation of discipline by 4th century

10 Athens This . . . not this

11 Athens Development of early democracy
Comparatively large political base, but: Free, adult males only Foreigners, women, slaves excluded Athenian society Maritime trade (7th century) Increases aristocratic power & class / socio-economic tensions Small landholders forced into debtor peonage

12 Solon and Athenian Democracy
638–558 Averts civil war Aristocrats maintain land Debt forgiveness Debt slavery banned Extension of polity Removal of lineage restrictions Institution of paid civil service

13 Pericles 495–429 “First citizen of Athens” General Naval supremacy
Zenith of Athenian democracy Popular aristocrat Infrastructural programs Cultural development Science Philosophy Literature Art Architecture

14 Greek Colonization (8th century)
Poleis population expansion Coastal Mediterranean & Black Sea colonies Imperial government? Effects: Commercial expansion Communication Language Culture Political & social effects

15 Persian Wars (500–479) Anatolia Ionian coast Marathon (490)
Cyrus and Darius Ionian coast Revolt, (500) supported by Athens Suppressed by Darius (493) Marathon (490) Herodotus’ Histories Darius dies (486) Xerxes’ (Darius’ son) revenge (480) Thermopylae Leonidas’ Spartans’ last stand Athens burned Salamis & Attica Themistocles’ Xerxes withdraws

16 The Delian League Response to the Persian menace Led by Athens
Sparta refused to join Superior navy & military Other poleis contributed financially Payments fueled Periclean ( ) expansion Resentment

17 The Peloponnesian War Civil war (431-404) Expanded civil strife
Athens v. Sparta Negotiated peace (421) Syracuse (415) Athens capitulates unconditionally Expanded civil strife

18 Kingdom of Macedon Frontier region north of Peloponnesus
Semi-autonomous clans Beneficial trade w/ Greece King Philip II (r ) Greek hostage ( ) Powerful military Consolidated power Imperial designs Greece (338) Assassinated (336) Pausanias of Orestis

19 Alexander of Macedon Expanded military Brilliant strategist
Inspirational leader Conquered ( ) Ionia, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia Invaded India (327) Soldiers weary Returned (324) Died (323)

20 Alexander’s Empire, ca. 323 B.C.E.

21 The Hellenistic Empires
Power vacuum Empire divided thricely Antigonus: Greece & Macedon Ptolemy: Egpyt Seleucus: Persian Achaemenid Empire Hellenistic Era Extension of Greek culture Integrated economies and cultures from Greece to India

22 The Antigonid Empire Greek conflict Political settlement Tax relief
Local autonomy Land distribution Athens Corinth Emigration Seleucid empire

23 The Ptolemaic Empire Wealthiest Hellenistic empire
Efficient organization Agriculture, industry, taxation Royal monopolies Textiles, salt, beer Alexandria Nile River & Mediterranean Administrative center Megalopolis Cultural center Alexandrian Museum Alexandrian Library

24 The Seleucid Empire Greek zenith Mass Greek colonization Ai Khanum
Exportation of Greek culture From Anatolia to Bactria

25 Trade and Integration of the Mediterranean Basin
Limited Greek agriculture Small grain harvests Rich in olive and grapes Commercial economy Mediterranean Sea Black Sea “Trading links” Manufactures Spread Greek culture

26 Panhellenic Festivals
Olympic Games 776 ? Olympia Integrated colonies Quadrennial for millennium

27 Patriarchal Society Infanticide Women subservient Priestess Sparta
Sappho Poetess Homosexual double-standard

28 Slavery Debtor slavery Captured soldiers Slave trade
Scythians (Russia) Nubians (Egypt / Sudan)

29 The Greek Language Adapted Phoenician alphabet
Flexible & complex language Allowed for abstract communication Philosophy

30 Socrates (470–399) Pivotal philosophic figure Socratic Method
Reflective questioning Honor, personal integrity, justice Plato Public gadfly (persistent, irritating critic) Death sentence: immorality and corruption of youth

31 Plato (430–347) Student of Socrates Systematized Socratic thought
Socratic dialogues Forms, or Ideas Material world = shadow of the real world Perception is reality “Allegory of the cave” The Republic Intellectual aristocracy Philosopher-king

32 Aristotle (389 – 322 B.C.E.)

33 Aristotle (389–322) Disciple of Plato
Forms, or Ideas = useless constructs Emphasized empirical findings, reason “The master of those who know.”

34 Greek Theology Polytheistic Personified supernatural powers
Sun, wind, rain Mythological stories Zeus, Apollo, Fortune, Furies Religious cults Eleusinian mysteries: morality Demeter: fertility cult Dionysus→ The Bacchae Domestication of rituals

35 Tragic Drama Evolution from cultic rituals Major playwrights Aeschylus
Sophocles Euripides Aristophanes

36 Hellenistic Philosophies
Epicureans Pleasure, or quite satisfaction The “greatest good” Skeptics Doubted certainty Stoics Most respected Universal family Duty, virtue, inner peace

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