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Chapter 10 Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2 Classical Greece, B.C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

3 Early Development of Greek Society Minoan society  Island of Crete  Major city: Knossos Ca B.C.E., center of maritime trade Scholars unable to decipher Linear A script 3 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4 Decline of Minoan Society Series of natural disasters after 1700 B.C.E.  Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tidal waves Foreign invasions Crete falls under foreign domination 4 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5 Mycenaean Society Indo-European invaders descend through Balkans into Peloponnesus, ca B.C.E. Influenced by Minoan culture Major settlement: Mycenae Military expansion throughout region 5 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6 Chaos in the Eastern Mediterranean Trojan war, ca B.C.E.  Homer’s Iliad  Sequel: Odyssey Political turmoil, chaos from 1100 to 800 B.C.E. Mycenaean civilization disappears 6 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

7 The Polis City-state Urban center, dominating surrounding rural areas Highly independent character  Monarchies  “Tyrannies,” not necessarily oppressive  Early democracies 7 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

8 Sparta Highly militarized society Subjugated peoples: helots  Serfs, tied to land  Outnumbered Spartans 10:1 by sixth century B.C.E. Military society developed to control threat of rebellion 8 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

9 Spartan Society Austerity the norm Boys removed from families at age seven  Received military training in barracks  Active military service follows Marriage, but no home life until age 30 Some relaxation of discipline by fourth century C.E. 9 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

10 Athens Development of early democracy  Free adult males only  Women, slaves excluded Yet contrast Athenian style of government with Spartan militarism 10 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

11 Athenian Society Maritime trade brings increasing prosperity beginning seventh century B.C.E. Aristocrats dominate smaller landholders Increasing socio-economic tensions  Class conflict 11 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

12 Solon and Athenian Democracy Aristocrat Solon mediates crisis  Aristocrats to keep large landholdings  But forgive debts, ban debt slavery Removed family restrictions against participating in public life Instituted paid civil service 12 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

13 Pericles Ruled B.C.E. High point of Athenian democracy Aristocratic but popular Massive public works Encouraged cultural development 13 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

14 Greek Colonization Population expansion drives colonization  Coastal Mediterranean, Black Sea Sicily (Naples: “Neapolis,” new city) Southern France (Massalia: Marseilles) Anatolia Southern Ukraine 14 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

15 Classical Greece and the Mediterranean Basin, B.C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15

16 Effects of Greek Colonization Trade throughout region Communication of ideas  Language, culture Political and social effects 16 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

17 Persian Wars ( B.C.E.) Revolt against Persian empire, 500 B.C.E., in Ionia Athens supports with ships Yet Greek rebellion crushed by Darius 493 B.C.E.; Athenians rout Persian army in 490 B.C.E. Successor Xerxes burns Athens, but driven out as well 17 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

18 The Delian League Poleis create Delian League to forestall more Persian attacks Led by Athens  Massive payments to Athens fuels Periclean expansion  Resented by other poleis 18 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

19 The Peloponnesian War Civil war in Greece, B.C.E. Poleis allied with either Athens or Sparta Athens forced to surrender But conflict continued between Sparta and other poleis 19 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

20 Kingdom of Macedon Frontier region to north of Peloponnesus King Philip II (r B.C.E.) builds massive military 350 B.C.E., encroaches on Greek poleis to the south; controls region by 338 B.C.E. 20 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

21 Alexander of Macedon “Alexander the Great,” son of Philip II Rapid expansion throughout Mediterranean basin Invasion of Persia successful Turned back in India when exhausted troops mutinied 21 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

22 Alexander’s Empire, ca. 323 B.C.E. ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22

23 The Hellenistic Empires After Alexander’s death, competition for empire Divided by generals  Antigonus: Greece and Macedon  Ptolemy: Egypt  Seleucus: Persian Achaemenid empire Economic integration, intellectual cross- fertilization ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23

24 The Antigonid Empire Smallest of Hellenistic empires Local dissent Issue of land distribution  Heavy colonizing activity 24 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

25 The Ptolemaic Empire Wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires Established state monopolies  Textiles  Salt  Beer Capital: Alexandria  Important port city  Major museum, library 25 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

26 The Seleucid Empire Massive colonization of Greeks Export of Greek culture, values as far east as India  Bactria  Ashoka legislates in Greek and Aramaic 26 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

27 Trade and Integration of the Mediterranean Basin Greece: little grain, but rich in olives and grapes Colonies further trade Commerce rather than agriculture as basis of much of economy 27 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

28 Panhellenic Festivals Useful for integrating far-flung colonies Olympic Games begin 776 B.C.E. Sense of collective identity 28 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

29 Patriarchal Society Women as goddesses, wives, prostitutes Limited exposure in public sphere Sparta partial exception Sappho Role of infanticide in Greek society and culture 29 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

30 Slavery Scythians (Ukraine) Nubians (Africa) Chattel Sometimes used in business Opportunity to buy freedom 30 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

31 The Greek Language Borrowed Phoenician alphabet Added vowels Complex language 31 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

32 Science and Mathematics Use of observable evidence, rational thought Thales predicts eclipse, 28 May 585 B.C.E. Democritus, atoms Pythagoras, systematic approach to mathematics Hippocrates, human anatomy and physiology 32 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

33 Socrates ( B.C.E.) The Socratic method Student: Plato Public gadfly, condemned on charges of immorality Forced to drink hemlock 33 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

34 Plato ( B.C.E.) Systematized Socratic thought Republic  Philosopher kings  Theory of Forms or Ideas 34 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

35 Aristotle ( B.C.E.) Student of Plato Broke with theory of Forms or Ideas Emphasis on empirical findings, reason Massive impact on western thought 35 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

36 Greek Theology Polytheism Zeus principal god Religious cults  Eleusinian mysteries  The Bacchae  Rituals eventually domesticated 36 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

37 Tragic Drama Evolution from public presentations of cultic rituals Major playwrights (fifth century B.C.E.)  Aeschylus  Sophocles  Euripides Comedy: Aristophanes 37 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

38 Hellenistic Philosophies Epicureans  Pleasure, distinct from Hedonists Skeptics  Doubted possibility of certainty in anything Stoics  Duty, virtue  Emphasis on inner peace 38 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


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