Presentation on theme: "GREEKS WERE THE ORIGINATORS OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE WESTERN HISTORICAL TRADITION AND THE GENIUS WAS POLITICS The Greek City-State: Democratic Politics."— Presentation transcript:
GREEKS WERE THE ORIGINATORS OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE WESTERN HISTORICAL TRADITION AND THE GENIUS WAS POLITICS The Greek City-State: Democratic Politics
Early Development of Greek Society: Is based on small autonomous city-states, Polis Highly independent character: Monarchies, Tyrannies (not necessarily oppressive) Early Democracies. Urban center, dominating surrounding rural areas Overtime these city-states began to trade with each other. Venture out into Aegean and Mediterranean Sea, used as highway to Europe, Asia Africa.
Minoan and Mycenaean Societies: Minoan society developed on Crete in 2000 b.c.e. thrived until it fell under foreign domination in 1100 b.c.e Developed a written language known as Linear A based on syllables (unable to deciphere) Traded olive oil and wine Mined copper Created Beautiful frescoes Built luxurious palaces and homes
Mycenaean Society Developed from Indo-European roots in Peloponnesus, the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula. Mycenaeans’ first traded with the Minoans, but eventually overpowered them Taking over their palaces, goods and trade routes Adapted Minoan writing to their own language. (Linear B) Mycenaeans fought a war with the city of Troy in 1200 b.c.e. that served as the inspiration for Homer’s epics, the Illiad and Odyssey. They fell apart by 1100 to 800 b.c.e. to constant foreign invasions and political turmoil
The World of the Polis: The Greek polis, or city-state developed out of the political chaos of the 11 th century b.c.e. First served as forts Then evolved, into poleis of cultural and economic urban centers as well as a political bases for Greek civilization. Each Polis was independent; Monarchies, Tyrannies Early Democracies
Spartan City State Highly Militarized Society Sparta located in a fertile region in Peloponnesus relied on its military power to control that region and to maintain public order. Spartans forced the original Peloponnesian inhabitants to work as slaves called helots. Because the helots rapidly outnumbered the Spartans the polis became a military state. Austerity the norm Boys removed from families at age 7 military training
Athens City State Development of Early Democracy Athenian polis, located in a region call Attica Maritime trade brings increasing prosperity Athens’s political structure was based on democratic principles and citizen participation in decision- making, free adult males. Women & slaves excluded Aristocratic landowners dominated smaller landowners. Economic decline, sold into slavery Increasing socio-economic tensions emerged: Class conflict, on the verge of civil war
The Reforms of Solon Aristocrat Solon mediates crisis, hoping to avoid Tyranny aristocrats gave him full power) Reforms: Canceled all current land debts, outlawed new loans based on humans as collateral and freed people who had fallen into slavery for debts Stopped short of redistribution of the land Gave nonaristocratic peoples participation of government His reforms did not avoid a tyrant and in 560bce Pisistratus seized power
Greece and World Interrelations: Poleis prospered and expanded by establishing trading centers and colonies along the shores of the Mediterranean and Black seas: Immense commercial and cultural exchange from India to Egypt Products including fish, fur, metals, honey, gold, amber, and slaves Culturally spreading Greek language and culture beyond the Greek mainland. However this expansion brought them into conflict with the Persians
Greek Conflict with Persian Empire to the East 500-479 bce Persian Kings Darius and Xerxes sought to gain control over Greek city-states, known as Persian Wars Though the Greeks were victorious at the battle of Marathon Darius in 486 bce vowed revenge and renewed the invasion of Greece. Xerxes led a massive invasion into Greece, close to 150,000 troops, 700 naval ships and 100s of supply ships. Spartan troops held off Persians for awhile The Athenians abandoned their city. Persians sacked and burned Athens to the ground. Greeks formed the largest Greek army seen and decisively defeated the Persian army at Plataea. The Greeks had won the war.
. Age of Pericles:(495 - 429 B.C.E.) Pericles was so important that the era in which he lived the 5th Century B.C. is known as the Age of Pericles After Persians defeat Athens led a confederation called the Delian League to protect against further Persian conflicts and liberating all Greek states from Persian control Promoted arts and literature along with major building projects such as the Parthenon using Delian League Treasury. Massive payments to Athens fuels Periclean expansion Pericles was a statesman, orator and general of Athens Responsible for rebuilding Athens following the Persian Wars. During Pericles Athenians became deeply attached to their democratic system He was leader of Athens during the Peloponnesian War.
Pericles: Athenian democracy reached its high point, many males During Pericles Athenians became deeply attached to their democratic system Public officials were subject to scrutiny and could be deposed from office if they did not maintain a vote of confidence. “Just because you do not take an interest in politics doesn't mean politics won't take an interest in you. ” ― Pericles
The Peloponnesian War Athenian expansion and arrogance helped spark the Peloponnesian War Civil War in Greece 431-404 bce Poleis allied with either Athens or Sparta Athens forced to surrender Sparta established political control of Athens, known as “The Rule of the Thirty Tyrants” Opposed democracy and admired oligarchy Overtime Athenians reestablished their democracy in 403 b.c.e.
Macedonians and the Coming of an Empire: Macedonians to the north became increasingly powerful under the leadership of King Philip II By 338 b.c.e. King Philip II controlled all of Greece KingPhilip next goal: Persia His mysterious assassination in 336 b.c.e. meant his dream would be realized by his young son Alexander.
Alexander the Great: Alexander military and intelligence quickly won him Ionia, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt. By 330 b.c.e. at 26 yrs of age Alexander defeated the Persians. Took the title “Emperor of the Persians” Invaded India, captured wealthy Punjab. Died in 323 b.c.e. Legacy: Spread Greek and Macedonian traditions. Brings about the Hellenistic Age. Most important city Alexandria