2 Infant Growth Patterns Infants experience rapid growth during the first year:Gains approximately 2/3 ounce/day between birth and 6 months; gains of 1/2 ounce/day between 6 and 12 months are typical.Length increases by approximately 10 inches.Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is higher than an adults’.
3 Low Birth Weight Infants The data on low birth weights is worrisome because such babies — those born at less than 5.5 pounds — are at greater risk of dying in infancy or experiencing long-term disabilities.
16 Introduction of Solid Foods (continued) 5–6 monthsiron-enriched cereals6–8 monthsvegetables, followed by fruits8–9 monthsmeat and meat substitutesInitially, it is better to offer individual foods rather than mixtures. If an allergy or sensitivity develops, the offending food can be readily identified. Sugar, salt, and butter should not be added to an infant's food. Parents may choose to prepare pureed foods at home or purchase commercially prepared food. Either is acceptable as long as the foods are nutritionally adequate. Table foods (removed before they have been seasoned) can be pureed in a blender. For example, if the family is having baked chicken, peas, and rice, an appropriate serving for the infant might be 2 tablespoons chicken, 2 tablespoons peas, and ¼ cup rice (all pureed). Preparing food in this manner can expose the infant to a wider variety of items and allows families to have more control over what is offered. Initially, it may be wise to limit high-fiber foods. Home-prepared pureed food can also be frozen in ice cube trays, removed after frozen and stored in a tightly sealed container, and thawed for use as needed.If the decision is to use commercially prepared baby food, it is better to use plain fruits, vegetables, and meats rather than “dinners,” or “desserts,” which are often extended with starches and other additives. Information on the labels of commercially prepared infant and toddler foods should be read carefully in order to make healthful selections (Figure 16–3). Remember that ingredients on food labels are listed in descending order according to the amount present. The first ingredient in an acceptable infant food should always be fruit, vegetable, or meat—not water, cereal or other starch. When feeding a child prepared baby food, a small portion should be removed, placed in a bowl, and the rest of the jar's contents returned to the refrigerator. This reduces the chance of contaminating the remaining food with bacteria and enzymes found in the saliva, which can also cause the food to break down and become “watery.”
19 Common choke foods for infants and toddlers include: uncut spaghettiuncut hot dogs,peanuts, andhard or gooey candywhole grapespopcornnutschunks of peanut butter (if your toddler isn't at risk for food allergies and you decide to give him peanut butter, spread smooth peanut butter thinly on bread or a cracker)chewing gumraisinsraw vegetableschunks of meatchunks of cheese
20 Case Study MissyT. is the mother of 6-week-old Hayden. Hayden is Missy's first child.Missy's mother lives nearby and is happy to help out with Hayden's care.Missy complains of being tired and mentions to her mother that Hayden awakens several times during the night and acts hungry.Her mother advises her to add cereal to his bedtime bottle in order to “fill him up so he will sleep through the night.”She also advises cutting larger holes in the nipple so the cereal won't block the opening.
21 Case Study Should Missy follow her mother's advice? What are the dangers, if any, of feeding a 6-week-old baby cereal from the bottle?Do child care practices change from generation to generation?Consider possible short- and long-term consequences of feeding semi-solid food from a bottle.How would you respond if you were the teacher and a parent asked that you feed an infant in this manner?
22 Children with Special Needs InfectionMedication side effects and unpleasant medical treatmentsSwallowing difficultiesDental problemsSpecial dietsFatigueInfants who are born prematurelyHave a range of health problemsGenetic disorders and congenital malformationsConditions that require surgeryMany infants with special needs are enrolled in early childhood programs today. Teachers must work closely with their families to learn as much about the child's condition, medical treatments, nutritional needs, and ways they can collaborate to assure the infant's healthy development.infants who are born prematurely or who have a range of health problems, including genetic disorders and congenital malformations, may present special feeding challenges and nutritional needs. For example, infants born with Down syndrome typically have weak facial muscles, which make sucking difficult and less efficient. Later, these children have a tendency to overeat and to gain excessive weight. Some infants may have conditions that require surgery, which can increase their need for certain nutrients at a time when they may not be receptive to food. It is especially important that infants with special needs obtain all of the nutrients necessary for healthy growth and brain development during the months following birth.
23 Bottle Mouth Syndrome Do not to allow a baby to sleep with a bottle. Can result in such rampant decay of a child’s teeth that the child will suffer pain and may lose teeth at a very early stage.Acidic liquids damage the enamel physically.Liquids high in sugar content (including milk) encourage bacterial growth in the mouth.Carbonated cold drinks and pure fruit juice are both of these and should be avoided in bottles.Try to use only water in the bottle if your baby insists on lying down with one.Do not to allow a baby to sleep with a bottle.Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is caused by allowing infants to feed for prolonged periods of time, such as putting them to bed with a bottle or giving them fruit juice in a bottle to drink at their convenience. Sugars in formula, breast milk, or juices can lead to a high rate of tooth decay when they remain in contact with developing teeth. Infants should be fed in a reasonable amount of time and the bottle or breast removed.
24 Bottle Mouth SyndromeLetting a baby drink a bottle lying down can also increase the risk of ear infections.Ear infection from feeding usually comes about by milk flowing into the baby's ear, where the warmth of the ear combined with the wetness and sugar of the milk provide a perfect breeding ground for germs.
25 NC Nutrition Requirements for Infants 10A NCAC GENERAL NUTRITION REQUIREMENTS FOR INFANTS(a) The parent or health care provider of each child under 15 months of age shall provide the center an individual written feeding schedule for the child.This schedule must be followed at the center.This schedule must include the child's name, be signed by the parent or health care provider, and be dated when received by the center.Each infant's schedule shall be modified in consultation with the child's parent or health care provider to reflect changes in the child's needs as he or she develops.The feeding instructions for each infant shall be posted for quick reference by the caregivers, except in centers licensed for three to 12 children located in a residence.
26 NC Nutrition Requirements for Infants (b) Each infant will be held for bottle feeding until able to hold his or her own bottle. Bottles will not be propped. Each child will be held or placed in feeding chairs or other age-appropriate seating apparatus to be fed.(c) Infants shall not be served juice in a bottle without a prescription or written statement on file from a health care professional or licensed dietitian/nutritionist.
27 Case StudyLindsey, 5 months old, has begun attending a child care program as her mother recently returned to work.Lindsey was started on cereal mixed with pureed fruit prior to entering child care.Lindsey's mother pumps and freezes her breast milk and delivers it to the center to be thawed and fed as needed.Lindsey is now experiencing some diarrhea and apparent abdominal pain.
28 Case Study QuestionsWhat are some possible causes of Lindsey's discomfort?Do you know how the breast milk is handled at home?What are safe procedures for handling breast milk at child care?Given Lindsey's age, is she ready to have fruit added to her diet?What other food/liquids could be used to mix in her cereal; what type of cereal should she be fed?ANSWERS TO CASE STUDY