Presentation on theme: "Understanding personal development and relationships The stages and pattern of human growth and development."— Presentation transcript:
Understanding personal development and relationships The stages and pattern of human growth and development
Physical development Development of the body, balance and control of movements
AgePhysical developmentIntellectual development Emotional development Social development 1 month Holds head erect for a few seconds. Eyes follow a moving light Interested in soundsCries in response to pain, hunger and thirst May sleep up to 20 hours in a 24 – hour period. Stops crying when picked up and spoken to 3 months Eyes follow a person moving. Kicks vigorously Recognises carer’s face. Shows excitement. Listens, smiles, holds rattle. Enjoys being cuddled and played with. Misses carer and cries for carer to return Responds happily to carer. Becomes excited at prospect of a feed or bath 6 months Able to lift head and chest up supported by wrists. Turns to a person who is speaking Responds to speech. Vocalised. Uses eyes a lot. Holds toys. Explores using hands. Listen to sound. Can be anxious in presence of strangers. Can show anger and frustration. Shows a clear preference for mother’s company Puts everything in mouth. Plays with hands and feet. Tries to hold bottle when feeding 9 months Stands when supported. May crawl. Gazes at self in mirror Tries to hold drinking cup. Sits without support. Tries to talk, babbling. May say “Mama” and “Dada”. Shouts for attention. Understands “No”. Still anxious about strangers. Sometimes irritable if routine is altered Can recognise individuals – mother, father, siblings. Play “Peek – a – boo”. Imitates hand clapping. Puts hands round cup when feeding 12 months Pulls self up to standing position. Uses pincer grip. Feeds self using fingers. May walk without assistance. Knows own name. Obeys simple instructions. Says about three words. Shows affection. Gives kisses and cuddles. Likes to see familiar faces but less worried by strangers Drinks from a cup without assistance. Holds a spoon but cannot feed self. Plays “Pat – a – cake”. Quickly finds hidden toys.
AgePhysical development Intellectual development Emotional development Social development 1-1 ½ years Walks well, feet apart. Runs carefully. Pushes and pulls large toys. Walks upstairs. Creeps backwards downstairs. Uses 6-20 recognisable words. Repeats last word of short sentences. Enjoys and tries to join in with nursery rhymes. Picks up named toys. Enjoys looking at simple picture books. Builds a tower of 3-4 bricks. Scribbles and makes dots. Preference for right or left hand shown. Affectionate, but may still be reserved with strangers. Likes to see familiar faces Able to hold spoon and to get food into mouth. Holds drinking cup and hands it back when finished. Can take off shoes and socks. Bowel control may have been achieved. Remembers where objects belong 2 years Runs on whole foot. Squats steadily. Climbs on furniture. Throws a small ball. Sits on a small tricycle and moves vehicle with feet Uses 50 or more recognisable words; understands many more words; puts two or three words together to form simple sentences. Refers to self by name. Asks names of objects and people. Scribbles in circles. Can build a tower of six or seven cubes. Hand preference is obvious Can display negative behaviour and resistance. May have temper tantrums if thwarted. Plays contentedly beside other children but not with them. Constantly demands mother’s attention Asks for food and drink. Spoon feeds without spilling. Puts on shoes
AgePhysical development Intellectual development Emotional development Social development 2-2 ½ years All locomotive skills now improving. Runs and climbs. Able to jump from a low step with feet together. Kicks a large ball. May use 200 or more words. Knows full name. Continually asking questions, likes stories and recognises details in picture books. Recognises self in photographs. Builds a tower of seven or more cubes Usually active and restless. Emotionally still very dependant on adults. Tends not to want to share playthings Eats skilfully with a spoon and may sometimes use a fork. Active and restless. Often dry through the day 3 years Sits with feet crossed at ankles. Walks upstairs with one foot on each step. Able to state full name, sex and sometimes Becomes less prone to temper tantrums. Affectionate and confiding, showing affection for younger siblings. Begins to understand sharing Eats with a fork and spoon. May be dry through the night
AgePhysical development Intellectual development Emotional development Social development 4 -10 years During this period children continue to develop and perfect many physical skills which were acquired at birth: Running Walking Climbing Riding a tricycle Sitting cross-legged Moving in time with music Playing ball games Children from the age of four are able to recount recent events for example name, address, age and birthday. Also children are able to gain control in writing and drawing and are able to develop a greater capacity for directed thinking (the ability to concentrate on one thing) By the age of 5-6 children are able to: Use a fork, spoon and knife Manage with difficult fastenings e.g. Buttons And relate time to their daily routine Between the ages of 7- 10 children become more independent and everything revolves around family, school and the community. Self – image and identity begin to develop. At the age of 10 childhood has nearly finished and puberty is beginning Between the ages of 4- 10 girls tend to develop more rapidly then boys. By the age of 9 special friendships would have developed but children of this gge are critical of others and some individuals may be excluded from playground games
AgePhysical development Intellectual development Emotional development Social development 11-18 years Puberty: this is when physical changes occur to the body as a result of the increased production of sex hormones these being oestrogen in girls and testosterone in boys Adolescents begin: To think about themselves and what other people think about them. To compare the ideal world with what they experience in reality To experiment with different identities Adolescents often experience mood swings and feelings of ambivalence. Adolescence is a time when a person is neither a child or an adult. However, it is also a time when interest in sex begins. Psycho-social: describing problems or issues that affect a person’s mental or psychological state as well as affecting their relationships and social contacts
Adults are required to take responsibility for themselves and others may be dependant upon them.