Question to Start Why do we forget about World War I and not World War II?
Four Big Results of World War I 1. Russian Revolution 2. Treaty of Versailles 3. The Development of a World Culture 4. The Ascendency of the United States
Russian Revolution Actually two different Revolutions in 1917 – February Revolution – eliminates Tsar, creates provisional. – October Revolution – Bolshevik Revolution - Communists
Why Russian Revolution? Late Industrialization Disaffected Workers Development of Middle Class Huge differences in rich/poor Weak Rulership Bloody Sunday - 1905 The War casualties / losses
February Revolution Tsar Nicholas II at the front / Grigori Rasputin – 1.8 M. Dead / 2 M. captured / 1 M. missing Started with bread strikes in Petrograd Duma / Army turned against him Provisional Gov’t set up – responded to Soviets (local workers councils) Alexander Kerensky
October Revolution Vladamir Lenin – greatest secret weapon ever – Peace, Land, Bread Started when government was said to have no teeth vs. Germans Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Mencheviks v. Bolsheviks – white v. red. Leon Trotsky – Propaganda minister – basically ran four year war v. White Russians. Operation Archangel
The “First” Soviet Russia Lenin’s view of communism – closer to Marx. – Run by Politburo and party meetings – New Economic Policy – mixed economy Lenin dies of strokes in 1924 Fight between Trotsky and Stalin for power. – Trotsky wants more bureaucracy, less centralization – international fight – Stalin wants more centralization, becomes a totalitarian dictatorship. – Trotsky loses by 1928 – goes into exile.
Stalin’s Russia - 1928 Centralized totalitarian dictatorship by 1932 – Collectivization – command economy – necessary because of scissor effect – Ukrainian Famine – Stalin’s Holocaust – 4-5 million – Cult of Personality – Great Purge – 700,000 killed / millions sent to gulags – 5 Year Plans of Industrialization – 1933 / 1938 – Creation of KGB – Heavily repressed Orthodox Church
Paris Peace Conference Big “Four” – Woodrow Wilson (US), Georges Clemenceau (Fr.), David Lloyd George (UK), and Vittorio Orlando (It.) Redrew world map Huge reparations on Germany and admission of guilt for war Started League of Nations
International Grievances Australia – sought to expand power in pacific China – sought to get Japan out of its territory Italy – Sought the land promised by Entente Japan – Racial Equality Proposal (rejected) Zionists – recognition of Israel France – punish Germany (Article 231) US – Bring 14 points to life Great Britain – Protect the empire Sykes-Picot Agreement Ho Chi Minh – not allowed to air grievances against France
Treaty of Versailles Germany took responsibility for war Responsible for 38 billion in war reparations Germans lost territory to French Ottoman Empire broken up into French/English territory Austro-Hungary Empire broken up
League of Nations Created as part of 14 points plan of Wilson’s. Wilson wanted to create a harmonious balance of power and provide for ethnic minorities. Had to sacrifice most of the points to keep the League as a potential. Lost the League when US refused to join. US had to sign Berlin Treaty in 1920, just to get other benefits of Versailles Treaty.