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Chapter 2: Core Concepts of Technology MPU 3252 INVENTION & INNOVATION.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Core Concepts of Technology MPU 3252 INVENTION & INNOVATION."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: Core Concepts of Technology MPU 3252 INVENTION & INNOVATION

2 Contents The designed world Core concepts of technology Common system found in technology Systems & subsystems of the transportation & construction technologies

3 The Designed World Human live in three worlds: 1.The natural world -Consists of plants and animals, earth, air, water and fire – things that would exist without human intervention or invention 2.The social world -Customs, cultures, political systems, legal systems, economies, religions and the various other mores that humans have devised to govern their interaction and relationships with one another 3. The designed world -Consists of all modifications that humans have made to the natural world to satisfy their own needs and wants. It is the product of a designed process that provides ways to turn resources – materials, tools and machines, people, information, energy, capital and time

4 The Designed World Human live in three worlds: 1.The natural world -Consists of plants and animals, earth, air, water and fire – things that would exist without human intervention or invention 2.The social world -Customs, cultures, political systems, legal systems, economies, religions and the various other mores that humans have devised to govern their interaction and relationships with one another 3. The designed world -Consists of all modifications that humans have made to the natural world to satisfy their own needs and wants. It is the product of a designed process that provides ways to turn resources – materials, tools and machines, people, information, energy, capital and time

5 The Designed World Steps of design process: 1.Identify the problem – what is the problem 2.Define or “refine” the problem – be specific narrow the choice to one problem 3.Gather information investigate ways to solve the problem – search all over for information and choices 4.Develop alternative solutions - find more than one way to solve the problem

6 The Designed World Steps of design process: 5. Select and refine the best solution – look at the solutions pick the best choice use it fix the things that won’t work 6. Express your solution draw a sketch to show idea – put your ideas down on paper to show to others and get help 7. Build a model or prototype – build a model or prototype to show others and test.

7 The Designed World Steps of design process: 8. Evaluate revise and refine the solution – use your prototype to see how things work get the kinks out 9. Communicate your solution – tell the world how your solution works and how well it works.

8 Core Concepts of Technology Understanding 1.Systems 2.Resources 3.Requirements 4.Optimization / Trade-off 5.Process 6.Controls

9 Core Concepts of Technology Understanding - Systems A system is a group of interrelated components designed collectively to achieve a common goal A system requires all components to function properly in order for the system to function. The human body and electrical grid are example of a system If one part fails, all other parts are impacted and may result in the failure of the entire system

10 Core Concepts of Technology Understanding - Resources All technological activities require resources, which are the things needed to get a job down The basic resources are: tools and machines, materials, information, energy, capital, time and people

11 Core Concepts of Technology Understanding - Requirements Requirements are the parameter placed on the development of a product or system There are the “must do” components of a design Criteria identify the desired features of a product or system Constraints involve the limitations of a design

12 Core Concepts of Technology Understanding – Optimization/Trade-off It involves making the product as functional as it can be, given the criteria and constraints A trade-off involves a choice of one quality over another An example would be making a product out of plastic (which would be cheaper) over using more expensive aluminum or other material

13 Core Concepts of Technology Understanding – Processes A process is a sequence of actions used to combine resources in order to produce an output An example would be measuring ingredients, combining and baking the mixture to make a cake

14 Core Concepts of Technology Understanding – Controls Controls are the mechanisms or activities that use information to cause system to change Controls may be manual (like the gas pedal in an automobile) or automatic (like the thermostat used to control the temperature of your home) Controls are the essential ingredient in a closed- loop system

15 Common Systems Found in Technology Some systems are found in nature, some are made by humans Systems have parts or components that work together to accomplish a goal Tools are simple object that help human complete tasks Different materials are used in making things People plan in order to get things done

16 System & Subsystem A subsystem is a system that operates as a part of another system –An example of subsystem is the collection of water pipes in a house, which is part of a larger fresh water distribution system in a town When parts of a system are missing, it may not work as planned

17 System & Subsystem An open loop system has no feedback path & requires human intervention –An example of an open-loop system is a microwave oven that requires a person to determine if the food has been heated to the required temperature A closed loop system uses feedback –An example of closed loop system is the heating system in a home, which has a thermostat to provide feedback when it needs to be turned on or off

18 Designed World in Medical Technology People in today’s health oriented society spend more time and money to live longer and more productive lives In 1990 a human life expectancy was 47 years, today it exceeds 76 year

19 Designed World in Medical Technology Vaccination -Help build protection to disease and are often administered early in life -Some immunizations are given over a period of several months Medicine -Some medicines require a long period of time before they become effective and require repeated doses Medical products -Everyday products such as toothbrushes, hairbrushes and soap are used to promote healthy living Tools & machines -Products such as artificial limbs, wheelchairs, thermometer, blood pressure machine and heart monitor help determine if people are well and provide other health clue

20 Designed World in Medical Technology

21 Designed World in Agricultural & Biotechnology Agriculture is the growing of plants and animals for food, fiber, fuel, chemical or other useful products Biotechnology is defined as any techniques that uses living organisms, or part of organisms, to make or modify products, improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganism for specific purposes

22 Designed World in Agricultural & Biotechnology The use of technologies in agriculture makes it possible for food to be available year round and conserve resources There are many different tools necessary to control and make up the parts of an ecosystem Most agriculture waste can be recycled Many processes used in agriculture require different procedures, products or system

23 Designed World in Agricultural & Biotechnology Biotechnology applies the principles of biology to create commercial products or processes The development of refrigeration, freezing, dehydration, preservation and irradiation provide long term storage of food and reduce the health risks caused by tainted food

24 Designed World in Agricultural & Biotechnology Biotechnology applies the principles of biology to create commercial products or processes The development of refrigeration, freezing, dehydration, preservation and irradiation provide long term storage of food and reduce the health risks caused by tainted food

25 Designed World in Agricultural & Biotechnology

26 Designed World in ICT People have long used various technologies to communicate over distances Powerful technologies that deal with information in a digital form; computers, data storage devices, fiber- optic communications and others have revolutionized society’s information handling capacity and led to the current era being called the information age

27 Designed World in ICT ICT technologies include the inputs, processes and outputs associated with sending and receiving information ICT systems allow information to be transferred from human to human, human to machine, machine to human and machine to machine ICT led to the valued commodity in today’s society

28 Designed World in ICT ICT systems can be used to inform, persuade, entertain, control, manage and educate -Internet -Telephones -Radio -Televisions -Computers -Fax machine

29 Designed World in Transportation The transportation system is a complex network of interconnected components that operate on land, water, in the air and space Many of the subsystems of the transportation system, such as highways, ports, airports and others are dependent upon other subsystem Throughout history, transportation systems have brought different parts of the world closer together

30 Designed World in Transportation As transportation has advanced, society has become increasingly dependent upon cars, highways and other aspects of travel Future use of transportation systems should take into account ways to reduce energy consumption and air pollution while promoting economic development and supporting international commerce

31 Designed World in Transportation Transportation play a vital role in the operation of other technologies, such as manufacturing, construction, communication, health and safety and agriculture Transportation services and methods have led to a population that is regularly on the move The design of an intelligent and non-intelligent transportation systems depends on many processes and innovative techniques

32 Designed World in Transportation

33 Designed World in Construction The process involved in designing and making structures are typically referred to a construction The Chinese erected the Great Wall; the Egyptians built pyramids; the Greek constructed elaborate building; and the Romans created remarkable roads

34 Designed World in Construction Structures are constructed using a variety of processes and procedures The design of structures includes a number of requirements Structures require maintenance, alteration, or renovation periodically to improve them or to alter their intended use Structures can include prefabricated materials


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