3 What is a system?A system is a group of interrelated components designed collectively to achieve a desired goal.Systems are used in a number of ways in technology and appear in many aspects of daily life , such as solar systems, political systems and technological systems.ITEEA standardsClick the example text to move to the slide with an example
4 Return email stating undeliverable InformationMessageTools/MachinesModemComputerPeopleSender of messageMaterialsDataPlastic for computerWiring for CPU/MonitorProductionTyping of messageSending of dataManagementServer/modem accessPrivacy IssuesPROCESSINPUTExpected DesiredPerson receivesUnexpected Undesiredis sent to wrong personOUTPUTanswerednot answeredReturn stating undeliverableFEEDBACKExample of System
5 Open SystemsAn open-loop system has no feedback path and requires human intervention.An example of an open loop system is a microwave oven that requires the person to put in a time to cook the food. There is no feedback to say the food is actually cooked thoroughly when the microwave turns off, the person may have to put in more time or the food may be overcooked.INPUTPROCESSOUTPUT
6 Closed SystemsA system that uses feedback from the output to control the input.An example of a closed-loop system is the heating system in a home, which has a thermostat to provide feedback when the heat needs to be turned on and off.INPUTPROCESSOUTPUTFEEDBACK
7 Universal Systems Model Every system that exists can be broken down using the universal systems model.INPUTPROCESSOUTPUTFEEDBACKClick on parts to move to slides
8 InputInputs consist of the resources that flow into a technological system. Inputs include:PeopleMaterialsTools and/or MachinesEnergyInformationCapitalTimeINPUTPROCESSOUTPUTFEEDBACK
9 InputsINPUTPROCESSOUTPUTFEEDBACKPeople: determine the need, solutions to the problems and how the inputs will be used to obtain the outputInformation: The people must have background knowledge of math and science to appropriately design solutions to problems and carry out the solutions.Materials: Natural or man made materials go into the creation of the outputMachines and/or Tools: are needed to turn raw materials or industrial materials into final solutionsEnergy: allows work to be carried out throughout the systemCapital: the money and land needed to create the outputTime: needed to design, create and assess the solutionINPUTPEOPLEINFORMATIONMATERIALSMACHINES/TOOLSENERGYCAPITALTIMEClick on bottom icon to go back to universal systems model slide
10 Process The process is the systematic sequence of actions that INPUTPROCESSOUTPUTFEEDBACKThe process is the systematic sequence of actions thatcombines resources to produce an output.Processes can be categorized into:Problem Solving: process which works through problem identification to selecting a final solutionProduction: process which involves the creation of the product or structureManagement: controlling and managing the inputs and other process involved in the system.Click on bottom icon to go back to universal systems model slidePROBLEM SOLVINGPRODUCTIONMANAGEMENTPROCESS
11 OutputINPUTPROCESSOUTPUTFEEDBACKThe output is the end result, which can have either a positive or negative impact. Outputs can take the following forms:Unexpected DesiredExpected DesiredUnexpected UndesiredExpected UndesiredOUTPUTUNEXPECTED DESIREDEXPECTED DESIREDUNEXPECTED UNDESIREDEXPECTED UNDESIREDClick on bottom icon to go back to universal systems model slide
12 OUTPUTSWhat other forms can outputs take? (Hint: This is from your reading in Chapter 6).
13 Feedback Feedback is information used to INPUTPROCESSOUTPUTFEEDBACKFeedback is information used tomonitor or control a system. The feedback loop allows the system to make necessary adjustments during operationNew and frequent users need to execute systems so that they function in the way they were designed to avoid malfunctions or safety issues.Click on bottom icon to go back to universal systems model slide
14 The stability of a technological system is influenced by all of the components in the system, especially those in the feedback loop. Equally important, is the proper use of systems.INPUTPROCESSOUTPUTFEEDBACK
15 New and frequent users need to operate systems so that they function in the way they were designed to avoid malfunctions or safety issues. Assignment: Consider the cell phone . Complete the steps of the universal system model. Use the example from the system as your guide. Then answer the following questions: 1. Have you witnessed or have you improperly operated a cell phone? 2. What happened? 3. How could a user error produce an unexpected output?