Presentation on theme: "Organization of the Body"— Presentation transcript:
1Organization of the Body Unit 2Organization of the Body
2Hierarchy of Human Structure Guided Reading:List the levels of organization, starting with molecules.What are stem cells?
3Hierarchy: a series of ordered groupings within a system Alpha male & female Pups & adults Outcasts / Dispersers
4Levels of Organization Cells in multicellular organisms cooperate by doing specific jobs specializationMolecular LOO, Cellular LOO, Tissue LOO, Organ LOO, Organ System LOO, Organism, Society, EnviromeTissue: organized assembly of cells that have a similar structure and perform a special function. Function as one unit b/c cells communicate with one another as they respond to environment & surrounding cells.The type of tissue that makes up an organ determines the function of that organ.Organ system: a collection of organs having related roles in an organism’s function. Has distinct tasks to maintain homeostasis in the body. Digestive breaks down & uptakes food and the circulaotry moves it around the body.Organism: any living thing / an individual biological unit capable of reproductionSociety: organism interacts with another organism, living working together. has an impact on homeostasis of the bodyEnvirome: all environmental factors that affect the survival of an organism or a society of organisms
5Stem Cells Undifferentiated cells have the potential to develop into many different cell types during early life & growthCan be induced to become specialized cellsbrain cells, red blood cells, skin cells, etc.Embryonic stem cells: derived from fertilized eggsInduced pluripotent stem cells: adult specialized cells that can be “reprogrammed” to become a different kind of cellBlastocyst (early stage of development)stem cells differentiate into specialized cellsAdults: stem cells still exist (in organs & bone marrow) to replace old/damaged cells
6The Human Physiological Environment Guided Reading:If humans live on land, why does the author say that the human physiological environment is “aqueous”?What does it mean when people say that something acts as a “solvent”?
7The Human Physiological Environment All the internal conditions that allow cells to perform their functions effectively & efficiently. This positively impacts body organizationInvolves internal & external cellular conditions.Both rely on water.Needs specific conditions to maintain homeostasis:pH, ions, chemical reactions, transport of molecules between internal & external environmentsAllows us to maintain homeostasis…
8More on homeostasis Homeostasis ≠ balance. Allows us to adapt to changing environments. Maintained by negative feedback loopsMaintain constant conditions inside the body when the external environment fluctuates.“Set point”Often utilizes chemical messengers (e.g. hormones)
10Negative Feedback: Maintaining Homeostasis “System” has a set point (ideal level) and “sensors” that detect changes…If it drops below set point, something is produced…If it exceeds that level, production stops…Examples:ThermostatToilet
13Generic Example: X Y Gland X releases hormone X… X This stimulates target cells to release hormone Y.Eventually, an excess of hormone Y existsGland X "senses" this… and inhibits its release of hormone X.XYX
15Defined…“Feedback in which the system responds so as to increase the magnitude of any particular perturbation”
16Results in amplification of the original signal instead of stabilization. Any system where there is a net positive feedback will result in a runaway situation.Requires a feedback loop to operate.Examples: Fruit ripening, childbirth, breastfeeding
17The Human Physiological Environment The human physiological environment is aqueous.Water is contained in the cells, the blood, body cavities, organ systems, and tissue.Not just sloshing around under the skin!!Water’s atomic structure provides it with all the properties that make it useful for the body.Polarity, adhesion (latch onto other molecules), cohesion (stick together), high specific heat. Good biological solvent b/c it forms hydrogen bonds with -OH groups on carbs and attracts the electrical charges of R groups on peptides. Natural solvent for ions.
18The universal solventWater is polar can dissolve most materials needed for human survivalSolvent = dissolves other chemicals & forms a solutionSolute = a particle that is dissolved in a solventWater is a good bio solvent b/c it is polar (charged)Most chemical reactions require an aqueous environment
19Water is a natural solvent for ions, needed for cellular functions Adhesion & cohesion won’t evaporate quickly (so we won’t become easily dehydrated)High specific heat water absorbs much heat energy when it evaporates
20Living in a balance Dehydration: tissues deprived of water DiarrheaSweatingVomitingIndicators: extreme thirst, stop sweating, nausea & exhaustionWater intoxication?Body takes in more water than it loses at a given period of time.Upsets natural balance of ions, mineralsA Fraternity Hazing Gone Wrong : NPR
21Tissues Guided Reading: What are the four types of tissue found in humans?What are the major characteristics/functions of the four types of tissue? (Recommend you make a chart)
22Stem cells again!!!! Retain ability to undergo cell division Assist further body development and healing later in lifeStem cells from bone can produce a variety of human tissuesBrain stem cells can develop into many types of cellsSee p. 107 in text
23Embryological germ layers Ectoderm skin and brainMesoderm Bone and muscleEndoderm Digestive organsLay down the 4 human tissue types into the hierarchy that eventually forms a human
24Create a Concept Map (aka Mind Map) for One Type of Tissue… How to create a concept mapConstructing a concept mapExampleFor each cell type…..Names of cells & structuresCharacteristicsLocationsFunctionsExamples
25Four Types of TissuesConnective: forms the supportive framework of the organs & bodyEpithelial: covers internal & external body surfaces; forms layers of cells that line body cavitiesMuscle: provides body w/ movement & supportNervous: conducts & coordinates body info; highly specialized cellsTISSUE: An organized assembly of cells that have similar structures and perform a specific functionEpithelial Tissue – covers internal and external body surfacesConnective Tissue – forms the supportive framework of the organs and the bodyMuscle Tissue – provides the body with movement and supportNervous Tissue – conducts and coordinates body information
26Types of Cells/structures Characteristics of these cells Tissue TypeTypes of Cells/structuresCharacteristics of these cellsEpithelialSquamousCuboidalColumnarFlatCube-shaped; produce secretionsTall, column-shaped; secretions, uptakeSimple: Single-layerStratified: Multi-layered; subject to wear and tearPseudostratified: False-stratificationConnectiveMatrixProtein: CollagenProtein: ElastinProtein: ReticulumLooseDenseMade of gel, liquid, protein, saltsStrengthFlexibilitySupportMost abundant; attachment, stabilization, structure, supportStrength, storage, flexibilityMuscleSmoothCardiacSkeletalSpindle-shaped; no visible fibers; weak contractions; line organsHeart; visible striations; intercalated disksLarge cells; distinct striations; (in)voluntaryNervousNeuronsNeurogliaMotor, Sensory, InterneuronAssist Neuron functions (astrocytes, oligodendites, ependymal cells)
27Organs, and Systems Guided Reading What is the relationship between tissues and organs/systems?What are the various organ systems found in humans?
28Organs and Systems Cardiovascular regulates blood flow Digestive regulates nutritionIntegumentary provides protectionLymphatic regulates body fluids, helps fight diseaseMuscular provides structure and movementSkeletal provides support and movementEndocrine regulates body function and developmentReproductive regulates sexual functionRespiratory regulates atmospheric gasses and certain body wastesUrinary regulates production, storage, and removal of urine
29Wellness and Illness over the Life Span Guided Reading:What does this statement mean? “Cell pathology causes hierarchy dysfunctions of the body”?What is the purpose of a biopsy?Make a chart describing the major types of cell pathology.What is “molecular decay”?What does “telomere shortening” cause for a cell?
30Cell PathologyThe basis of understanding dysfunction of the body’s hierarchyDysfunction: Abnormal, impaired, or incomplete functioning of an organism, organ system, organ, tissue or cell. All gross diseases.Cell pathology: examining cells microscopicallyBiopsy: Removal of diseased cells for study
31Types of Cell Pathology PrefixesDys: bad, abnormalA: notHyper: over, above, exceedingly, in excessMeta: changed; alteredRootsTrophy: make to thrivePlasia: formationStasis: place
32Cell Pathology TermsAtrophy: Wasting or decrease in size of a cell, tissue or organ.Caused by malnutrition / blood flow problemsLack of muscle use / nerve damage muscle atrophyDystrophy: “ill growth.” progressive changes in a tissue that is almost always due to long-term malnutrition, decreased blood flow.Muscular dystrophy: general weakening of musclesHypertrophy: Enlargement of a tissue or organ due to an increase in cell size, NOT CELL NUMBER.
33Cell Pathology TermsDysplasia: disorderly growth pattern in a tissue or organ.Not cancerousHas significant impact on body structureHyperplasia: abnormal multiplication in the number of normal cells in a tissueIncreases the risks of certain cancersDistorts the function of the tissue/organMetaplasia: A change in cell and tissue function from normal to abnormal.Can be reversibleCan produce inappropriate functioning of the tissue or organCause: DNA damage, exposure to certain chemicalsCan lead to cancer or breakdown in cell communication / tissue organization
34Cell Pathology TermsMetastasis: Diseased cells break away from the original location and establish themselves in new areas of the bodyCan carry out functions in new locationReserved from cancerous or highly abnormal cells
35Cell Pathology: Amyloid deposition Amyloid: protein-like materialDisagreement: do they cause disease or are they the result of disease?Intended to help but cause harm when build up in cytoplasmIndicators of cell damagecell senses & correctsCell death is the result usually
36Cell Pathology: Fatty Change Accumulation of lipids in the cell in response to cellular injury.Excessive alcohol intakeincreased fat in liver cells, disrupting cell function & thus tissue function
37Cell Pathology: Necrosis Localized tissue deathBlood flow decrease (bed sores!) burns, chemical damage, infections, injuryResults in diminished functioning of the tissue, organ & organ system.
38Cellular Aging: Non-mitotic cells Occurs because of accumulated molecular damageEspecially in cells that cannot undergo mitosis: fat cells, skeletal muscle, nervous tissue.They can’t fix the damageFail at tasksaffect tissues, organs, etc.Caused by environmental factors, stressCells can die early or undergo programmed death protect the nearby cells