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Unit 2 Organization of the Body. Hierarchy of Human Structure Guided Reading: 1. List the levels of organization, starting with molecules. 2. What are.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Organization of the Body. Hierarchy of Human Structure Guided Reading: 1. List the levels of organization, starting with molecules. 2. What are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2 Organization of the Body

2 Hierarchy of Human Structure Guided Reading: 1. List the levels of organization, starting with molecules. 2. What are stem cells?

3 Hierarchy: a series of ordered groupings within a system Alpha male & female Pups & adults Outcasts / Dispersers

4 Levels of Organization

5 Stem Cells  Undifferentiated cells  have the potential to develop into many different cell types during early life & growth  Can be induced to become specialized cells  brain cells, red blood cells, skin cells, etc.  Embryonic stem cells : derived from fertilized eggs  Induced pluripotent stem cells : adult specialized cells that can be “reprogrammed” to become a different kind of cell  Blastocyst (early stage of development)  stem cells differentiate into specialized cells  Adults : stem cells still exist (in organs & bone marrow) to replace old/damaged cells

6 The Human Physiological Environment Guided Reading: 1. If humans live on land, why does the author say that the human physiological environment is “aqueous”? 2. What does it mean when people say that something acts as a “solvent”?

7 The Human Physiological Environment  All the internal conditions that allow cells to perform their functions effectively & efficiently. This positively impacts body organization  Involves internal & external cellular conditions.  Both rely on water.  Needs specific conditions to maintain homeostasis:  pH, ions, chemical reactions, transport of molecules between internal & external environments  Allows us to maintain homeostasis …

8 More on homeostasis  Homeostasis ≠ balance.  Allows us to adapt to changing environments. Maintained by negative feedback loops  Maintain constant conditions inside the body when the external environment fluctuates.  “Set point”  Often utilizes chemical messengers (e.g. hormones)

9 Negative Feedback Systems

10 Negative Feedback: Maintaining Homeostasis  “System” has a set point (ideal level) and “sensors” that detect changes…  If it drops below set point, something is produced…  If it exceeds that level, production stops…  Examples:  Thermostat  Toilet

11 Body Temperature Example

12 Negative Feedback Loop

13 Generic Example:  Gland X releases hormone X…  This stimulates target cells to release hormone Y.  Eventually, an excess of hormone Y exists  Gland X "senses" this… and inhibits its release of hormone X. X X Y

14 Positive Feedback

15 Defined…  “Feedback in which the system responds so as to increase the magnitude of any particular perturbation”

16  Results in amplification of the original signal instead of stabilization.  Any system where there is a net positive feedback will result in a runaway situation.  Requires a feedback loop to operate.  Examples: Fruit ripening, childbirth, breastfeeding

17 The Human Physiological Environment  The human physiological environment is aqueous.  Water is contained in the cells, the blood, body cavities, organ systems, and tissue.  Not just sloshing around under the skin!!  Water’s atomic structure provides it with all the properties that make it useful for the body.

18 The universal solvent....  Water is polar  can dissolve most materials needed for human survival  Solvent = dissolves other chemicals & forms a solution  Solute = a particle that is dissolved in a solvent  Water is a good bio solvent b/c it is polar (charged)  Most chemical reactions require an aqueous environment

19  Water is a natural solvent for ions, needed for cellular functions  Adhesion & cohesion  won’t evaporate quickly (so we won’t become easily dehydrated)  High specific heat  water absorbs much heat energy when it evaporates

20 Living in a balance  Dehydration : tissues deprived of water  Diarrhea  Sweating  Vomiting  Indicators: extreme thirst, stop sweating, nausea & exhaustion  Water intoxication ?  Body takes in more water than it loses at a given period of time.  Upsets natural balance of ions, minerals A Fraternity Hazing Gone Wrong : NPR

21 Tissues Guided Reading: 1. What are the four types of tissue found in humans? 2. What are the major characteristics/functions of the four types of tissue? (Recommend you make a chart)

22 Stem cells again!!!!  Retain ability to undergo cell division  Assist further body development and healing later in life  Stem cells from bone can produce a variety of human tissues  Brain stem cells can develop into many types of cells

23 Embryological germ layers  Ectoderm  skin and brain  Mesoderm  Bone and muscle  Endoderm  Digestive organs  Lay down the 4 human tissue types into the hierarchy that eventually forms a human

24 Create a Concept Map (aka Mind Map) for One Type of Tissue…  How to create a concept map How to create a concept map  Constructing a concept map Constructing a concept map  Example Example  For each cell type…..  Names of cells & structures  Characteristics  Locations  Functions  Examples

25 Four Types of Tissues  Connective : forms the supportive framework of the organs & body  Epithelial : covers internal & external body surfaces; forms layers of cells that line body cavities  Muscle: provides body w/ movement & support  Nervous : conducts & coordinates body info; highly specialized cells

26 Tissue TypeTypes of Cells/structures Characteristics of these cells Epithelial Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Flat Cube-shaped; produce secretions Tall, column-shaped; secretions, uptake Simple: Single-layer Stratified: Multi-layered; subject to wear and tear Pseudostratified: False-stratification Connective Matrix Protein: Collagen Protein: Elastin Protein: Reticulum Loose Dense Made of gel, liquid, protein, salts Strength Flexibility Support Most abundant; attachment, stabilization, structure, support Strength, storage, flexibility Muscle Smooth Cardiac Skeletal Spindle-shaped; no visible fibers; weak contractions; line organs Heart; visible striations; intercalated disks Large cells; distinct striations; (in)voluntary NervousNeurons Neuroglia Motor, Sensory, Interneuron Assist Neuron functions (astrocytes, oligodendites, ependymal cells)

27 Organs, and Systems Guided Reading 1. What is the relationship between tissues and organs/systems? 2. What are the various organ systems found in humans?

28 Organs and Systems  Cardiovascular  regulates blood flow  Digestive  regulates nutrition  Integumentary  provides protection  Lymphatic  regulates body fluids, helps fight disease  Muscular  provides structure and movement  Skeletal  provides support and movement  Endocrine  regulates body function and development  Reproductive  regulates sexual function  Respiratory  regulates atmospheric gasses and certain body wastes  Urinary  regulates production, storage, and removal of urine

29 Wellness and Illness over the Life Span Guided Reading: 1. What does this statement mean? “Cell pathology causes hierarchy dysfunctions of the body”? 2. What is the purpose of a biopsy? 3. Make a chart describing the major types of cell pathology. 4. What is “molecular decay”? 5. What does “telomere shortening” cause for a cell?

30 Cell Pathology  The basis of understanding dysfunction of the body’s hierarchy  Dysfunction : Abnormal, impaired, or incomplete functioning of an organism, organ system, organ, tissue or cell. All gross diseases.  Cell pathology: examining cells microscopically  Biopsy: Removal of diseased cells for study

31 Types of Cell Pathology Prefixes  Dys: bad, abnormal  A: not  Hyper: over, above, exceedingly, in excess  Meta: changed; altered Roots  Trophy: make to thrive  Plasia: formation  Stasis: place

32 Cell Pathology Terms  Atrophy: Wasting or decrease in size of a cell, tissue or organ.  Caused by malnutrition / blood flow problems  Lack of muscle use / nerve damage  muscle atrophy  Dystrophy: “ill growth.” progressive changes in a tissue that is almost always due to long-term malnutrition, decreased blood flow.  Muscular dystrophy: general weakening of muscles  Hypertrophy: Enlargement of a tissue or organ due to an increase in cell size, NOT CELL NUMBER.

33 Cell Pathology Terms  Dysplasia: disorderly growth pattern in a tissue or organ.  Not cancerous  Has significant impact on body structure  Hyperplasia: abnormal multiplication in the number of normal cells in a tissue  Increases the risks of certain cancers  Distorts the function of the tissue/organ  Metaplasia : A change in cell and tissue function from normal to abnormal.  Can be reversible  Can produce inappropriate functioning of the tissue or organ  Cause: DNA damage, exposure to certain chemicals  Can lead to cancer or breakdown in cell communication / tissue organization

34 Cell Pathology Terms  Metastasis: Diseased cells break away from the original location and establish themselves in new areas of the body  Can carry out functions in new location  Reserved from cancerous or highly abnormal cells

35 Cell Pathology: Amyloid deposition  Amyloid: protein-like material  Disagreement: do they cause disease or are they the result of disease?  Intended to help but cause harm when build up in cytoplasm  Indicators of cell damage  cell senses & corrects  Cell death is the result usually

36 Cell Pathology: Fatty Change  Accumulation of lipids in the cell in response to cellular injury.  Excessive alcohol intake  increased fat in liver cells, disrupting cell function & thus tissue function

37 Cell Pathology: Necrosis  Localized tissue death  Blood flow decrease (bed sores!) burns, chemical damage, infections, injury  Results in diminished functioning of the tissue, organ & organ system.

38 Cellular Aging: Non-mitotic cells  Occurs because of accumulated molecular damage  Especially in cells that cannot undergo mitosis: fat cells, skeletal muscle, nervous tissue.  They can’t fix the damage  Fail at tasks  affect tissues, organs, etc.  Caused by environmental factors, stress  Cells can die early or undergo programmed death  protect the nearby cells


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