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Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology. About this Chapter Definition of physiology Review of organ systems Function and process Introduction to homeostasis.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology. About this Chapter Definition of physiology Review of organ systems Function and process Introduction to homeostasis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology

2 About this Chapter Definition of physiology Review of organ systems Function and process Introduction to homeostasis Ideas in physiology Themes in physiology The science of physiology

3 Levels of Organization Physiology defined Study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts Includes all its chemical and physical processes Literal “knowledge of nature” Aristole. Anatomy defined Study of structures Literal to dissect or take apart Organization of life The cell is the unit of life Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms

4 Levels of Organization Figure 1-1 BiosphereAtomsMoleculesCellsTissuesOrgans Organ systems Organisms Populations of one species Ecosystem of different species CHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY CELL BIOLOGY PHYSIOLOGY ECOLOGY

5 Levels of Organization - Human

6 Organ Systems in Review NIRMCRUDLES Integumentary Musculoskeletal Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Circulatory / Cardiovascular Nervous Endocrine Lymphatic / Immune Protection from environmental hazards; temperature control Support, protection of soft tissues; mineral storage; blood formation Locomotion, support, heat production Directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems Directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems Internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases Defense against infection and disease Delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood Processing of food and absorption of organic nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water Elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products; control of pH Production of sex cells and hormones Organ System Major Functions Integumentary system Skeletal system Muscular system Nervous system Endocrine system Cardiovascular system Lymphatic system Respiratory system Digestive system Urinary system Reproductive system Know Names, functions and major components

7 Organ Systems in Review The integration between systems of the body Figure 1-2 Integumentary System Nervous system Endocrine system Musculoskeletal system Respiratory system Digestive system Circulatory system Reproductive system Urinary system

8 Function versus Process Function explains the “why” Teleological approach Process or mechanism describes the “how” Mechanistic approach Red blood cell example “Because cells need oxygen and red blood cells bring it to them.” “Oxygen binds to hemoglobin molecules contained in the red blood cells.”

9 Homeostasis Adaptive significance of functions Keeping internal environment stable Cell Intracellular fluid Extracellular fluid Outside world

10 Homeostasis Most cells contact extracellular fluid Out out Out In In in Figure 1-3 Extracellular fluid: the internal environment of the body Intracellular fluid of most cells Material enters and leaves the body Material enters and leaves the body External environment of the body

11 Homeostasis and Controls External or internal change Loss of homeostasis Sensed by organism Physiological attempt to correct Negative feedback loop

12 Homeostasis and Controls Successful compensation Homeostasis reestablished Failure to compensate Illness Death Study of failure to compensate is pathophysiology

13 Organism in homeostasis External change Internal change results in loss of homeostasis Compensation succeedsCompensation fails WellnessIllness or disease Organism attempts to compensate Internal change Homeostasis and Controls Figure 1-4

14 Themes in Physiology Homeostasis Control systems Biological energy use Structure-function relationships Molecular interactions Mechanical properties of cells, tissues, and organs Communication Chemical and electrical signals

15 Themes in Physiology A simple control system Figure 1-5 Input signal Output signal Controller

16 Concept Mapping Organizational tool for relationships and processes Schematic diagram of structure and function Cells, tissues, and organs Flow charts Diagram processes in sequence

17 Concept Mapping: Types of Maps Figure 1-6b Person working outside on a hot, dry day Loses body water by evaporation Body fluids become more concentrated Thirst pathways stimulated Person seeks out and drinks water Internal receptors sense change in internal concentration Water added to body fluids decreases their concentration (b) A process map, or flow chart


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