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Animal Tissues and Organ Systems Chapter 20. Stem Cells Undifferentiated cells with potential to develop into many cell types – Embryonic stem cells,

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Tissues and Organ Systems Chapter 20. Stem Cells Undifferentiated cells with potential to develop into many cell types – Embryonic stem cells,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Tissues and Organ Systems Chapter 20

2 Stem Cells Undifferentiated cells with potential to develop into many cell types – Embryonic stem cells, more versatile – Adult stem cells, less versatile

3 Body Organization Tissue – Group of cells performing same task Organ – Two or more tissues performing same task Organ system – Two or more organs performing same task

4 Tissues Groups of cells and intercellular substances that interact in one or more tasks Example: muscle tissue

5 Organs Group of tissues organized to perform a task or tasks Example: Heart is an organ that pumps blood through body Heart consists of muscle tissue, nervous tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue

6 Organ Systems Groups of organs that interact physically and/or chemically to perform a common task Example: Circulatory system includes heart, arteries, and other vessels that transport blood through the body

7 Homeostasis Stable operating conditions in the internal environment Brought about by coordinated activities of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems

8 4 Types of Tissues Epithelial tissues Connective tissues Muscle tissues Nervous tissues

9 Epithelial Tissues Line body surfaces, cavities, ducts, and tubes One free surface faces a body fluid or the environment simple squamous epithelium basement membrane connective tissue

10 simple epithelium basement membrane connective tissue free surface of epithelium Epithelium

11 Glands Secretory organs derived from epithelium Exocrine glands have ducts or tubes Endocrine glands are ductless

12 Cell Junctions Tight junctions prevent leaks Gap junctions connect abutting cytoplasms Adhering junctions cement cells together Tight junctions Adhering junction Gap junctions

13 Connective Tissues Most abundant tissues in the body Fibroblasts secrete – polysaccharide “ground substance” that surrounds and supports cells – fibers of collagen and/or elastin

14 Soft Connective Tissues Loose connective tissue Dense, irregular connective tissue Dense, regular connective tissue

15 Specialized Connective Tissues Cartilage Bone tissue Adipose tissue Blood

16 red blood cell white blood cell platelet Fig. 20-3g, p.342 cells and platelets of blood

17 Muscle Tissue Cells contract when stimulated Moves body and specific body parts 3 types – Skeletal – Cardiac – Smooth

18 Skeletal Muscle Attaches to and moves bones Long, cylindrical cells Striated cells Voluntary control nucleus

19 Smooth Muscle Located in soft internal organs and blood vessels Cells taper at ends Cells not striated Not under voluntary control where abutting cells meet

20 Cardiac Muscle Present only in heart Cells are branching – ends of cells joined by communication junctions Cells striated Not under voluntary control cell nucleus

21 Nervous Tissue Detects stimuli, integrates information, and relays commands for response Consists of excitable neurons and supporting neuroglial cells

22 Functional zones of a motor neuron Neurons

23 Excitable cells Stimulus sends electrical impulse along plasma membrane Transmits information to other neurons, muscles or glands

24 Neuroglia Neuroglial cells make up more than half of nervous tissue Protect and support neurons

25 11 Major Organ Systems Integumentary Nervous Muscular Skeletal Circulatory Endocrine Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive

26 Nervous System Muscular SystemSkeletal System Circulatory System Endocrine System Fig. 20-6, p.344a1 Integumentary System 11 Major Organ Systems

27 Lymphatic System Respiratory System Digestive System Urinary System Reproductive System Fig. 20-6a2, p.344 11 Major Organ Systems

28 midsagittal plane transverse plane frontal plane dorsal surface ventral surface anterior posterior Fig. 20-6b, p.345 Position References: Animals

29 Position References: Humans frontal plane (aqua) transverse plane (yellow) midsagittal plane (green)

30 Major Body Cavities Cranial cavity Spinal cavity Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity

31 cranial cavity spinal cavity thoracic cavity abdominal cavity pelvic cavity Fig. 20-6d, p.345

32 Primary Tissues Three primary tissues in vertebrate embryos give rise to all adult tissues: Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm

33 Skin: An Organ System Epidermis: Stratified epithelium Dermis: Dense connective tissues Hypodermis: Loose connective tissue and adipose tissue

34 hair epidermis dermis hypodermis (below skin, not part of it) oil gland hair follicle blood vessels smooth muscle sweat gland sensory neuron Fig. 20-7a, p.346

35 outermost epidermal layer (all dead cells) keratinized cells being flattened rapidly dividing cells of epidermis dermis Fig. 20-7b, p.346

36 Functions of Human Skin Protects body from injury, dehydration, UV radiation, and some pathogens Helps control temperature Receives external stimuli Involved in vitamin D production

37 Sun Damages Skin UV light stimulates melanin production – tans skin Tan protects inner layers against UV damage UV exposure causes – elastin fibers to clump – skin to age prematurely – skin cancer

38 Langerhans Cells White blood cells in skin Attack viruses and bacteria Stimulate immune system Are damaged by UV exposure

39 Epithelial Tissues

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