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Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Chapter 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Chapter 4

2 WE SPEND MORE TIME LISTENING TO OTHERS THAN ANY OTHER TYPE OF COMMUNICATION PERSONNEL MANAGERS: LISTENING IS THE MOST CRITICAL SKILL FOR WORKING EFFECTIVELY IN TEAMS EFFECTIVE LISTENING IS ESSENTIAL IN EFFECTIVE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

3 Most people need to think about listening in a new way. There’s a difference between hearing and listening. Listening isn’t a natural ability, and it takes effort and practice to do well. It’s probable that people will hear the same message in different ways. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

4 What is hearing? HEARNG: Sound waves strike the eardrum and cause vibrations that are transmitted to the brain. What is listening? LISTENING: When the brain takes those electrochemical impulses --- reconstructs them into a representation of the original sound --- and gives them meaning. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

5 Stages of Listening ATTENDING: Paying attention to the signal UNDERSTANDING: Making sense of the message RESPONDING: Feedback, demonstrate understanding, etc Remembering People only remember 50% of what they hear immediately after hearing it. Within two months, 50% of that is forgotten. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

6 Two approaches can help you become a better listener: Minimize faulty listening behaviors Understand some of the reasons you listen poorly Examples? Solutions you have found? Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

7 Most people use one of four personal listening styles Content-oriented: Quality of the message People-oriented: Concerned about relationships. Less judgmental Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

8 Action-oriented: Concerned about task at hand. Get the heart of the matter quickly. Time-oriented: Concerned about efficiency. Good for tight deadlines. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

9 Best techniques to use: Relationships: People approach Clarity: Action-oriented approach Analysis: Content-oriented approach Clock: Time orientation Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

10 There are three ways to listen and respond: 1.For information 2.To critically evaluate a speaker’s ideas 3.To help others with their problems Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

11 INFORMATIONAL Listening Taking time to understand. Try to understand before judging. Separate the message from the speaker Be opportunistic. Look for value. Look for key ideas. Ask questions Paraphrase Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

12 CRITICAL listening Listen before evaluating Listen to the evidence and reasoning Listen to the source of the evidence Is there enough evidence? Can the evidence be interpreted in more than one way? Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

13 EMPATHETIC listening The goal is to build a relationship or help the person solve a problem. Advising: Careful…might allow others to avoid responsibility. Judging: Are you truly in a position to pass judgment? Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

14 EMPATHETIC listening Analyzing: May be more effective. Help people consider alternative meanings. Questioning: Can help them think about their problems more clearly. Don’t use questions to hide suggestions or criticism. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

15 EMPATHETIC listening Supporting: Make sure it's sincere Prompting: Silence or brief statements of encouragement that can draw people out Paraphrasing: Helps the person sort out the problem. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

16 All listeners do not hear the same message Physiological factors Social roles Cultural background Personal interests Example… Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

17 Faulty Listening Behaviors Examples? Pseudo Listening. Imitation of the real thing Selective Listening. Responding only to what interests them. Defensive Listening. Take innocent comments as personal attacks. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

18 Ambushing. Listen carefully but only because they are collecting info to attack what you have to say. Insulated Listening. Topic they don’t want to deal with --- they fail to hear it or don’t acknowledge it. Insensitive Listening. Aren’t able to look beyond the words and behavior to understand their hidden meanings Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

19 Reasons for poor listening EFFORT: Listening takes hard work MESSAGE OVERLOAD: Decide which messages are worth your attention and take the time to understand them. RAPID THOUGHT: Background conversations. Quiet them. Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

20 Reasons for poor listening PSYCHOLOGICAL NOISE: Too wrapped up in personal concerns PHYSICAL NOISE: True distractions including traffic, music, talking by others, fatigue. HEARING PROBLEMS. FAULTY ASSUMPTIONS: Giving someone the mental brush-off…devaluing their thoughts Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

21 Reasons for poor listening Believe talking has more apparent advantages Gender difference: Men interrupt to control discussion Women interrupt to communicate agreement or elaborate on a speaker’s idea Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

22 Reasons for poor listening CULTURAL DIFFERENCES: Young German engage Young Japanese listen Young Israeli’s less vocal, more apt to analyze Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc.


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