The Gilgamesh Epic recounts the great flood from the Babylonian perspective. (7 th cent. BC)
Life in ancient Ur depicted in the “Standard of Ur” (2600 BC)
Amenophis II (1450-1426 BC) was Pharoah at the time of the Exodus
A coffin from the time of Joseph So Joseph died at the age of one hundred and ten years; and he was embalmed and placed in a coffin in Egypt. (Gen. 50:26)
The Amarna letters (c. 1400 BC) report an invasion in Palestine of a conquering people called the “’apiru” (Hebrews?).
King Solomon acquired the services of Hiram to make temple items. “Then he made the ten stands of bronze..” (1 Kg. 7:27-37 )
The Assyrians were to have a great impact on Israelite history for the duration of their empire.
Shalmaneser III (859-824 BC) mentions war with a Palestinian coalition including “Ahab the Israelite”. Now Ahab the son of Omri became king over Israel in the thirty-eighth year of Asa king of Judah, and Ahab the son of Omri reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty-two years. (1 Kg. 16:29)
The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (859- 824 BC) records the events of his reign.
Shalmaneser III mentions reception of tribute from “Jehu of the house of Omri” (I.e. the Israelite). King Jehu (or a representative)
Assyrian inscriptions record a revolt by “Azriyau of Jaudi” (Azariah of Judah) and tribute being paid by “Yauhazi Yaudaya” (Jehoahaz of Judah). Pul, king of Assyria, came against the land, and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver so that his hand might be with him to strengthen the kingdom under his rule (2 Kg. 15:19-20)
In the days of Pekah king of Israel, Tiglath- pileser king of Assyria came and captured Ijon and Abel-beth-maacah and Janoah and Kedesh and Hazor and Gilead and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali; and he carried them captive to Assyria. (2 Kg. 15:29)
Tiglath-pileser III (745-727 BC) Assyrian name “Pulu” Chronicle of Tiglath-pileser
Shalmaneser V (727-722 BC) The Babylonian Chronicle reports that he “broke the resistance of Samaria”. Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against him, and Hoshea became his servant and paid him tribute. (2 Kg. 17:3) In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria captured Samaria and carried Israel away into exile to Assyria… (2 Kg. 17:6)
Sargon II (722-705 BC) Finished the destruction of Samaria and captivity of the northern kingdom (722 BC). Won significant victories against powers allied with Egypt including Ashdod. In the year that the commander came to Ashdod, when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him and he fought against Ashdod and captured it, at that time the Lord spoke through Isaiah the son of Amoz (Cf Is. 20:1-2).
Sargon standing possibly with his successor Sennacherib or another court official.
This small document in cuneiform writing, records the date of the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem. It says the fall of the city came the 2nd of Adar (March 16, 597 BC). The tablet says Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city of Judah and on the second day of Adar he seized it and captured the king, substituting anther in his place. The Bible tells this story in 2 Kings 24:10-17 and the records match perfectly.
Ostraca from Lachish reveal exchanges between outposts and a commander of Israel’s armies in Lachish named “Ya’ush” concerning the Babylonian invasion of Judah in Zedekiah’s reign. The Lachish Letters (588 BC)
The Nabonidus cylinder mentions Belshazzar by name
Belshazzar, son and co-regent of Nabonidus, said to Daniel, “... and you will have authority as the third ruler in the kingdom” (Dan. 5:16). Stele of Nabonidus
Text from the Cyrus Cylinder... I am Cyrus. King of the world. When I entered Babylon... I did not allow anyone to terrorize the land... I kept in view the needs of people and all its sanctuaries to promote their well-being...I put an end to their misfortune. The Great God has delivered all the lands into my hand; the lands that I have made to dwell in a peaceful habitation...
The Rosetta Stone This find enabled archaeologists to read ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. The text itself concerns Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204-180 BC).
Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) “And a mighty king will arise, and he will rule with great authority and do as he pleases. (Dan. 11:3)
Dead Sea Scroll Jar and reproduction of a scroll of Habbakuk