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1 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 1 PowerPoint slides prepared by Leonard R. Mendola, PhD Touro College

2 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 2 Chapter 10: Schools Outline APPROACHES TO EDUCATING STUDENTS –Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning –Accountability TRANSITIONS IN SCHOOLING –Transition to Middle or Junior High School –Improving Middle Schools –The American High School –High School Dropouts –Transition from High School to College –Transition from College to Work

3 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 3 Chapter 10: Schools Outline THE SOCIAL CONTEXTS OF SCHOOLS –Changing Social Developmental Contexts –School Climate –Person-Environment Fit –Teachers, Parents, Peers, and Extracurricular Activities –Culture

4 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 4 Chapter 10: Schools Outline ADOLESCENTS WHO ARE EXCEPTIONAL –Who are Adolescents with Disabilities? –Learning Disabilities –Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder –Educational Issues Involving Adolescents with Disabilities –Adolescents Who Are Gifted

5 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 5 Schools In youth, we learn. An important context for that learning is school. Schools not only foster adolescents’ academic learning, they also provide a social arena where peers, friends, and crowds can have a powerful influence on their development.

6 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 6 Approaches to Educating Students Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning –There are two main contemporary approaches to student learning: Constructivist Direct Instruction

7 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 7 Approaches to Educating Students The Constructivist Approach –It is a learner-centered approach. –Emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher. –Children are encouraged to explore their world, discover knowledge, reflect, and think critically with careful monitoring and meaning guidance from the teacher ( Eby, Herrell, & Jordan, 2009).

8 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 8 Approaches to Educating Students The Constructivist Approach (Continued) –Constructionists believe that for too long in American education children have been required to –Sit still. –Be passive learners. –Rotely memorize irrelevant as well as relevant information (Armstrong, Henson, & Savage, 2009). –Constructivism may include an emphasis on collaboration: children working with each other in their efforts to know and understand (McNeil, 2009).

9 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 9 Approaches to Educating Students The Constructivist Approach (Continued) –Constructivist instructional philosophy would not have children memorize information rotely but would give them opportunities to meaningfully construct the knowledge and to understand the material while guiding their learning (Kellough & Carjuzaa, 2009).

10 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 10 Approaches to Educating Students The Direct Instruction Approach –Is a structured, teacher-centered approach that is characterized by: –Teacher direction and control. –High teacher expectations for student’s progress. –Maximum time spent by students on academic tasks. –Efforts by the teacher to keep negative affect to a minimum. –An important goal in the direct instruction approach is maximizing student learning time.

11 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 11 Approaches to Educating Students Accountability –State-mandated tests have taken on a more powerful role (Gronlund & Waugh, 2009; Oosterhof, 2009). –Most states have or are in the process of identifying objectives that every student in the state is expected to achieve. –The most visible aspect of state-mandated testing involves the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the federal legislation that was signed into law in 2002.

12 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 12 Approaches to Educating Students Accountability (Continued) –NCLB is the U.S. government’s effort to hold schools and school districts accountable for the success or failure of their students (Yell & Drasgrow, 2009). –The legislation shifts the responsibility to the states, with states being required to create their own standards for students’ achievement in mathematics, English/language arts, and science. –In 2006, states were required to give all students annual tests in grade 3 through 8.

13 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 13 Approaches to Educating Students Accountability (Continued) –Criticisms of NCLB (Stiggins, 2008): –Using a single score from a single test as the sole indicator of students’ progress and competence represents a very narrow aspect of students’ skills (Lewis, 2007). –The tests schools are using to assess achievement and progress, required by NCLB, do not measure such important skills as: Creativity Motivation Persistence Flexible thinking Social skills

14 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 14 Approaches to Educating Students Accountability (Continued) –Criticisms of NCLB (Stiggins, 2008): –Teachers are spending far too much class time “teaching to the test” by drilling students and having them memorize isolated facts at the expense of more student-centered constructivist teaching that focuses on higher-level thinking skills, which students need for success in life. –At issue is whether the tests and procedures mandated by NCLB are the best ones for achieving these high standards (Yell & Drasgow, 2009).

15 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 15 Transitions in Schooling Transition to Middle or Junior High School –The transition to middle or junior high school can be difficult and stressful for many students (Anderman & Mueller; 2009; Elmore, 2009). –The transition takes place at a time when many changes—in the individual, in the family, and in school—are occurring simultaneously. These changes include: Puberty Formal operational thought Responsibility and independence Impersonal school structure Heterogeneous set of peers Focus on assessment Top-dog phenomenon

16 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 16 Transitions in Schooling Improving Middle Schools –In 1989 the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development recommended: Develop smaller “communities” to lessen the impersonal nature of large middle schools. Lower student-to-counselor ratios from several hundred-to1 to 10-to1. Involve parents and community leaders in schools.

17 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 17 Transitions in Schooling Improving Middle Schools (Continued) –In 1989 the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development recommended: Develop better curricula that produce students who are literate, understand the sciences, and have a sense of health, ethics, and citizenship. Have teachers team-teach in more flexibly designed curriculum blocks that integrate several disciplines, instead of presenting students with disconnected, rigidly separated 50-minute segments. Boost students’ health and fitness with more in-school programs and help students who need public health care to get it.

18 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 18 Transitions in Schooling The American High School –Many high school graduates are poorly prepared for college. –Many are poorly prepared for the demands of the modern, high-performance workplace. –The National Research Council (2004) made a number of recommendations for improving U.S. high schools: Get students more engaged in learning. Focus on the psychological factors involved in motivation. Promote a sense of belonging “by personalizing instruction, showing an interest in students’ lives, and creating a supportive, caring social environment” (p. 3).

19 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 19 Transitions in Schooling High School Dropouts –Viewed as a serious educational and societal problem for many decades. –Adolescents approach adult life with educational deficiencies that severely curtail their economic and social well-being (Elmore, 2009). –In the last half of the 20 th century and the first several years of the 21 st century, U.S. high school dropout rates declined (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008a).

20 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 20 Transitions in Schooling Trends in High School Dropout Rates Fig. 10.1

21 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 21 Transitions in Schooling The Causes of Dropping Out –School-related problems –Economic reasons –Socioeconomic status –Friends drop out –Personal reasons

22 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 22 Transitions in Schooling Reducing the Dropout Rate The most effective programs provided early reading programs, tutoring, counseling, and mentoring (Lehr & others, 2003). Early detection of children’s school-related difficulties. Get children engaged with school in positive ways. Create caring environments and relationships, use block scheduling, and offer community-service opportunities.

23 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 23 Transitions in Schooling Transition from High School to College Replays the top-dog phenomenon. Involves a move to a larger more impersonal school structure. Interaction with peers from diverse geographical and sometimes more diverse ethnic backgrounds.

24 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 24 Transitions in Schooling Transition from High School to College Increased focus on achievement and performance and their assessment. Students are more likely to: Feel grown up. Have more subjects from which to select. Have more time to spend with peers. Have more opportunities to explore different lifestyles. Enjoy greater independence from parental monitoring.

25 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 25 Transitions in Schooling Transition from College to Work Having a college degree is a strong asset. College graduates earn considerably more money in their lifetimes than those who do not go to college. Income differences between college graduates and high school graduates continue to grow (Occupational Outlook Handbook, ). U.S. colleges train many students to develop general skills rather than vocationally specific skills. The transition from college to work is often a difficult one (Mortimer & Larson, 2002).

26 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 26 The Social Contexts of Schools Changing Social Developmental Contexts The social context differs at the preschool, elementary, and secondary level. Preschool A protected environment. The boundary is the classroom. The Elementary School The classroom is still the major context. More likely to be experienced as a social unit.

27 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 27 The Social Contexts of Schools Changing Social Developmental Contexts (Continued) The Middle or Junior High School The school environment increases in scope and complexity. The social field is the school as a whole rather than the classroom. Adolescents socially interact with many different teachers and peers from a range of social and ethnic backgrounds.

28 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 28 The Social Contexts of Schools Changing Social Developmental Contexts (Continued) The Middle or Junior High School (Continued) A greater mix of male and female teachers. Social behavior is heavily weighted toward peers, extracurricular activities, clubs, and the community. The student in secondary schools is usually aware of the school as a social system and may be motivated to conform and adapt or to challenge it (Minuchin & Shapiro, 1983).

29 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 29 The Social Contexts of Schools Classroom Climate and Management Two effective general strategies for creating positive classroom environments are: –Using an authoritative strategy. –Effectively managing the group’s activities. Strategies of Classroom Management Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive

30 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 30 The Social Contexts of Schools Person-Environment Fit Some negative psychological changes might result from a mismatch between the needs of developing adolescents and the opportunities afforded them by the schools they attend.

31 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 31 The Social Contexts of Schools Teachers, Parents, Peers, and Extracurricular Activities Adolescents’ development is influenced by teachers. Teachers The following teacher traits are associated with positive student outcomes more than are other traits: –Enthusiasm –Ability to plan –Poise –Adaptability –Warmth –Flexibility –Awareness of individual differences Positive teacher expectations were linked with higher student achievement (Jussim & Eccles, 1993).

32 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 32 The Social Contexts of Schools Parents and Schools Parents play important roles in the adolescent’s success in schools. Through effective family management practices. Being involved in adolescents’ schooling. Family Management Family management practices are positively related to grades and self- responsibility, and negatively to school- related problems (Taylor, 1996).

33 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 33 The Social Contexts of Schools Parental Involvement Is less in secondary school (Eccles & Harold, 1993). Teachers listed parental involvement as the number one priority in improving education (Chira, 1993). Students were more likely to get As and less likely to repeat a grade or be expelled if both parents were highly involved in their schooling (National Center for Education Statistics, 1997).

34 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 34 The Social Contexts of Schools Parental Involvement (Continued) Joyce Epstein (2001, 2005, 2007a,b, 2009) offers the following recommendations for increasing parental involvement in adolescents’ schooling: Families have a basic obligation to provide for the safety and health of their adolescents. School have a basic obligation to communicate with families about school programs and the individual progress of their adolescents. Parents’ involvement at school needs to be increased. Parental involvement in the adolescent’s learning activities at home needs to be encouraged.

35 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 35 The Social Contexts of Schools Peers (peer relations in school contexts) –Structure of middle school Encourages students to interact with larger numbers of peers on a daily basis (Wentzel, 2003). The relative uncertainty and ambiguity of multiple classroom environments and more complex class schedules may result in students turning to each other for information, social support, and strategies for coping. –Peer statuses Have been studied in relation to school success. Being popular or accepted by peers is usually associated with academic success. Being rejected by peers is related to more negative outcomes (Wentzel, 2003).

36 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 36 The Social Contexts of Schools Peers (peer relations in school contexts) –Bullying Significant numbers of students are victimized by bullies (Hinuja & Patchin, 2009; Juvonen & Galvan, 2008; Pepler & others, 2008). In a national survey of more than 15,000 6th through 10th- grade students, nearly 1 of every 3 students said that they had experienced occasional or frequent involvement as a victim or perpetrator in bullying (Nansel & others, 2001). –Friendship

37 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 37 The Social Contexts of Schools Bullying Behaviors Among U.S. Youth Fig. 10.2

38 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 38 The Social Contexts of Schools Peers (peer relations in school contexts) –Bullying (Continued) Who is likely to be bullied? –Boys –Younger middle school students –Anxious and socially withdrawn children Bullies and their victims in adolescence were more likely to experience depression and engage in suicide ideation and attempt suicide than their counterparts who were not involved in bullying (Brunstein Klomek & others, 2007). Cyberbullying –When a child or adolescent is tormented, threatened, harassed, or humiliated by another child or adolescent on the Internet (Aricak & others, 2008).

39 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 39 The Social Contexts of Schools Bullying Prevention/Intervention An increasing number of prevention/intervention programs have been developed to reduce bullying (Breakstone, Dreiblat, & Dreiblat, 2009): Olweus Bullying Prevention Bully-Proofing Your School Steps to Respect

40 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 40 The Social Contexts of Schools Bullying Prevention/Intervention To reduce bullying, schools can adopt these strategies (Cohn & Canter, 2003; Hyman & others, 2006; Limber, 2004): Get older peers to serve as monitors for bullying and intervene when they see it taking place. Develop school-wide rules and sanctions against bullying and post them throughout the school. Form friendship groups for adolescents who are regularly bullied by peers.

41 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 41 The Social Contexts of Schools Bullying Prevention/Intervention (Continued) –Identify bullies and victims early and use social skills training to improve their behavior. –Become involved in school programs to counteract bullying. –Reinforce adolescents’ positive behaviors and model interactions that do not include bullying or aggression.

42 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 42 The Social Contexts of Schools Friendship Having friends is related to higher grades and test scores in adolescents (Berndt & Keefe, 1996). One longitudinal study found that having at least one friend was related to academic success over a two-year period (Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997).

43 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 43 The Social Contexts of Schools Extracurricular Activities Adult-sanctioned. Occur after-school hours. Wide array of activities beyond academic courses: Sports Honor societies Band Drama club Academic clubs (math and language) Participation is linked to higher grades, school engagement, less likelihood of dropping out.

44 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 44 The Social Contexts of Schools Extracurricular Activities (Continued) Participation is linked to: Higher grades. School engagement. Less likelihood of dropping out of school. Higher self-esteem. Lower rates of depression, delinquency and substance abuse (Fredricks, 2008; Mahoney & other, 2009; Parente & Mahoney, 2009; Peck & others, 2008).

45 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 45 The Social Contexts of Schools Extracurricular Activities (Continued) The quality of the extracurricular activities matters (Fredricks, 2008; Mahoney & other, 2009; Parente & Mahoney, 2009). High-quality extracurricular activities that are likely to promote positive adolescent development: Competent and supportive adult mentors. Opportunities for increasing school connectedness. Challenging and meaningful activities. Opportunities for improving skills (Fredricks & Eccles, 2006).

46 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 46 The Social Contexts of Schools Culture Adults often restrict access to peers, especially for girls. Socioeconomic Status and Ethnicity –Adolescents from low-income, ethnic minority backgrounds have more difficulties in school than do their middle- socioeconomic-status non-Latino white counterparts. –Critics argue that schools have not done a good job of educating low-income, ethnic minority adolescents to overcome the barriers to their achievement (Golnick & Chinn, 2009; Taylor & Whittaker, 2009).

47 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 47 The Social Contexts of Schools The Education of Students from Low-Income Backgrounds Many adolescents in poverty face problems that present barriers to their learning (Hutson, 2008). Schools in low-income areas are more likely to have more students with: Low achievement test scores. Low graduation rates. Small percentages of students going to college. Teachers with less experience. Teachers that are more likely to encourage rote learning (Spring, 2008).

48 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 48 The Social Contexts of Schools Ethnicity in Schools More than one-third of all African American and almost one- third of all Latino students attend schools in the 47 largest city school districts in the United States. Many of these inner-city schools are still segregated, are grossly underfunded, and do not provide adequate opportunities for children to learn effectively. The effects of SES and the effects of ethnicity are often intertwined (Coltrane & others, 2008; Liu & others, 2008).

49 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 49 The Social Contexts of Schools Ethnicity in Schools (Continued) Strategies for improving relationships among ethnically diverse students: Turn the class into a jigsaw classroom. Encourage students to have positive personal contact with diverse other students. Encourage students to engage in perspective taking. Help students think critically and be emotionally intelligent about cultural issues. Reduce bias. View the school and community as a team. Be a competent cultural mediator.

50 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 50 The Social Contexts of Schools Cross-Cultural Comparisons Many countries recognize that quality, universal education of children and youth is critical for the success of any country. Countries vary considerably in their ability to attain this mission. (Feinstein & Peck, 2008).

51 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 51 The Social Contexts of Schools Cross-Cultural Comparisons (Continued) –Secondary Schools School begins at age 6 or 7. Stay in school until 14- to 17-years old. Divided into two or more levels. Entrance exams in Japan only. Sports important in United States and Australia.

52 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 52 The Social Contexts of Schools Cross-Cultural Comparisons (Continued) –Colleges What is college attendance like around the world? –Canada has the largest percentage of 18- to 21-year-olds enrolled in college (41 percent) –Belgium (40 percent) –France (36 percent) –United States (35 percent) –Ireland (31 percent) –New Zealand (25 percent) (U.S. Department of Education, 1996).

53 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 53 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional U.S. Children with a Disability Who Receive Special Education Fig. 10.3

54 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 54 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Learning Disabilities Involves understanding or using spoken or written language; the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, or spelling. May also involve difficulty in doing mathematics. The learning problem is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; mental retardation; emotional disorders; or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

55 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 55 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Learning Disabilities (Continued) From the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s There was a dramatic increase in the percentage of U.S. students receiving special education services for a learning disability (from 1.8 percent in 1976 to 1977 to 5.8 percent in 1995 to 1996) (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008b). Some experts say that the dramatic increase reflected poor diagnostic practices and over-identification. Other experts say the increase in the number of children being labeled with a “learning disability” is justified (Bender, 2008; Hallahan, Kaufmann, & Pullen, 2009). About three times as many boys as girls are classified.

56 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 56 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Learning Disabilities (Continued) Diagnosing a learning disability is often a difficult task (Bender, 2008; Fritschmann & Solari, 2008). The most common problem that characterizes students with a learning disability involves reading (Shaywitz, Morris, & Shaywitz, 2008). –Dyslexia is a category that is reserved for individuals who have a severe impairment in their ability to read and spell. –Children and adolescents with learning disabilities often have difficulties in handwriting, spelling, or composition.

57 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 57 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Brain Scans and Learning Disabilities Fig. 10.4

58 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 58 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Children and adolescents show one or more of the following characteristics over a period of time: Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity Children and adolescents who are inattentive have difficulty focusing on any one thing and might become bored with a task after only a few minutes. Children and adolescents who are hyperactive show high levels of physical activity, seeming to almost always be in motion.

59 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 59 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) The number of children and adolescents with ADHD has increased substantially, by some estimates doubling in the 1990s. The disorder occurs as much as four to nine times more in boys than in girls. There is controversy about the increased diagnosis of ADHD (Gargiulo, 2009). ADHD is not supposed to be diagnosed by school teams because it is a psychiatric disorder with specific criteria (Bender, 2008).

60 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 60 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Definitive causes of ADHD have not been found. A number of causes have been proposed: –Some children and adolescents inherit a tendency to develop ADHD from their parents (Goos, Ezzatian, Schachar, 2007). –Some children and adolescents develop ADHD because of damage to their brain during prenatal or postnatal development (Banerjee, Middleton, & Faraone, 2007). –Cigarette and alcohol exposure during prenatal development and low birth weight (Neuman & others, 2007).

61 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 61 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Regions of the Brain in Which Children with ADHD Had a Delayed Peak in the Thickness of the Cerebral Cortex Fig. 10.5

62 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 62 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) The increased academic and social demands as well as stricter standards for behavioral control, often illuminate the problems of the child with ADHD. Elementary school teachers report that the child with ADHD has difficulty: Working independently. Completing seatwork. Organizing work. Restlessness and distractibility also are often noted.

63 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 63 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment of ADHD Stimulant medication is effective (Ritalin, or Adderall) Researchers have often found that a combination of medication and behavior management improves the behavior of children with ADHD. Critics argue that many physicians are too quick to prescribe stimulants for children with milder forms of ADHD (Marcovitch, 2004).

64 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 64 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Educational Issues Until the 1970s most public schools either refused enrollment to children or adolescents with disabilities or inadequately served them. In 1975, Public Law , the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, required that all students with disabilities be given a Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). In 1990, Public Law was recast as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA was amended in 1997 and then reauthorized in 2004 and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Turnbull, Huerta, & Stowe, 2009).

65 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 65 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Educational Issues (Continued) IDEA spells out broad mandates for services to all children with disabilities (Carter, Prater, & Dynces, 2009; Smith & others, 2008): Evaluation and eligibility determination. Appropriate education. An individualized education plan (IEP). Education in the least restrictive environment (LRE).

66 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 66 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Individualized Education Plan (IEP) A written statement that spells out a program that is specifically tailored for children and adolescents with a disability (Gargiulo, 2009). The IEP should be: 1.Related to the student’s learning capacity. 2.Specifically constructed to meet the student’s individual needs and not merely a copy of what is offered to other students. 3.Designed to provide educational benefits.

67 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 67 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) A setting that is similar as possible to the one in which children and adolescents who do not have a disability are educated. This provision of the IDEA has given a legal basis to efforts to educate students with a disability in the regular classroom (Smith & others, 2008). The term inclusion describes educating a child or adolescent with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom (Gargiulo, 2009).

68 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 68 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Percentage of U.S. Students with Disabilities 6 to 21 Years of Age Receiving Special Services in the General Classroom Fig. 10.6

69 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 69 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Adolescents Who Are Gifted Have above-average intelligence (an IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent in some domain, such as art, music, or mathematics. Programs for gifted adolescents in schools typically base admission to the programs on intelligence and academic aptitude. (Pfeiffer & Blei, 2008; VanTassell-Baska & Stambaugh, 2008).

70 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 70 Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Adolescents Who Are Gifted Ellen Winner (1996), an expert on giftedness, describes three characteristics of adolescents who are gifted: Precocity. Marching to their own drummer. A passion to master. Often adolescents who are gifted are socially isolated and under-challenged in the classroom.

71 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 71 RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) 1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA –620–3660 The CEC maintains an information center on the education of children and adolescents who are exceptional and publishes materials on a wide variety of topics.

72 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 72 RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology (2nd ed.) (Vols 1 and 2) edited by Neal Salkind. (2008). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. A number of leading experts provide in-depth coverage of many educational psychology topics, ranging from learning and cognition to the social and cultural aspects of schools.

73 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 73 RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS National Dropout Prevention Center Clemson University 205 Martin Street Clemson, SC –656–2599 The center operates as a clearinghouse for information about dropout prevention and at-risk youth and publishes the National Dropout Prevention Newsletter.

74 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 74 RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS Turning Points 2000: Educating Adolescents in the 21st Century by Anthony Jackson and Gayle Davis. (2000). New York: Teachers College Press. This follow-up to earlier Turning Points recommendations includes a number of strategies for meeting the educational needs of adolescents.

75 Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill 75 E-LEARNING TOOLS To help you master the material in this chapter, visit the Online Learning Center for Adolescence, 13th edition at:


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