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1by John W. Santrock Adolescence University of Texas at Dallas Thirteenth EditionAdolescenceby John W. SantrockUniversity of Texas at DallasPowerPoint slides prepared by Leonard R. Mendola, PhDTouro College
2Chapter 10: Schools Outline APPROACHES TO EDUCATING STUDENTSContemporary Approaches to Student LearningAccountabilityTRANSITIONS IN SCHOOLINGTransition to Middle or Junior High SchoolImproving Middle SchoolsThe American High SchoolHigh School DropoutsTransition from High School to CollegeTransition from College to Work
3Chapter 10: Schools Outline THE SOCIAL CONTEXTS OF SCHOOLSChanging Social Developmental ContextsSchool ClimatePerson-Environment FitTeachers, Parents, Peers, and Extracurricular ActivitiesCulture
4Chapter 10: Schools Outline ADOLESCENTS WHO ARE EXCEPTIONALWho are Adolescents with Disabilities?Learning DisabilitiesAttention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderEducational Issues Involving Adolescentswith DisabilitiesAdolescents Who Are Gifted
5An important context for that learning is school. SchoolsIn youth, we learn.An important context for that learning is school.Schools not only foster adolescents’ academic learning, they also provide a social arena where peers, friends, and crowds can have a powerful influence on their development.
6Approaches to Educating Students Contemporary Approaches to Student LearningThere are two main contemporary approaches to student learning:ConstructivistDirect Instruction
7Approaches to Educating Students The Constructivist ApproachIt is a learner-centered approach.Emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher.Children are encouraged to explore their world, discover knowledge, reflect, and think critically with careful monitoring and meaning guidance from the teacher (Eby, Herrell, & Jordan, 2009).
8Approaches to Educating Students The Constructivist Approach (Continued)Constructionists believe that for too long in American education children have been required toSit still.Be passive learners.Rotely memorize irrelevant as well as relevant information (Armstrong, Henson, & Savage, 2009).Constructivism may include an emphasis on collaboration: children working with each other in their efforts to know and understand (McNeil, 2009).
9Approaches to Educating Students The Constructivist Approach (Continued)Constructivist instructional philosophy would not have children memorize information rotely but would give them opportunities to meaningfully construct the knowledge and to understand the material while guiding their learning (Kellough & Carjuzaa, 2009).
10Approaches to Educating Students The Direct Instruction ApproachIs a structured, teacher-centered approach that is characterized by:Teacher direction and control.High teacher expectations for student’s progress.Maximum time spent by students on academic tasks.Efforts by the teacher to keep negative affect to a minimum.An important goal in the direct instruction approach is maximizing student learning time.
11Approaches to Educating Students AccountabilityState-mandated tests have taken on a more powerful role (Gronlund & Waugh, 2009; Oosterhof, 2009).Most states have or are in the process of identifying objectives that every student in the state is expected to achieve.The most visible aspect of state-mandated testing involves the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, the federal legislation that was signed into law in 2002.
12Approaches to Educating Students Accountability (Continued)NCLB is the U.S. government’s effort to hold schools and school districts accountable for the success or failure of their students (Yell & Drasgrow, 2009).The legislation shifts the responsibility to the states, with states being required to create their own standards for students’ achievement in mathematics, English/language arts, and science.In 2006, states were required to give all students annual tests in grade 3 through 8.
13Approaches to Educating Students Accountability (Continued)Criticisms of NCLB (Stiggins, 2008):Using a single score from a single test as the sole indicator of students’ progress and competence represents a very narrow aspect of students’ skills (Lewis, 2007).The tests schools are using to assess achievement and progress, required by NCLB, do not measure such important skills as:CreativityMotivationPersistenceFlexible thinkingSocial skills
14Approaches to Educating Students Accountability (Continued)Criticisms of NCLB (Stiggins, 2008):Teachers are spending far too much class time “teaching to the test” by drilling students and having them memorize isolated facts at the expense of more student-centered constructivist teaching that focuses on higher-level thinking skills, which students need for success in life.At issue is whether the tests and procedures mandated by NCLB are the best ones for achieving these high standards (Yell & Drasgow, 2009).
15Transitions in Schooling Transition to Middle or Junior High SchoolThe transition to middle or junior high school can be difficult and stressful for many students (Anderman & Mueller; 2009; Elmore, 2009).The transition takes place at a time when many changes—in the individual, in the family, and in school—are occurring simultaneously. These changes include:PubertyFormal operational thoughtResponsibility and independenceImpersonal school structureHeterogeneous set of peersFocus on assessmentTop-dog phenomenon
16Transitions in Schooling Improving Middle SchoolsIn 1989 the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development recommended:Develop smaller “communities” to lessen the impersonal nature of large middle schools.Lower student-to-counselor ratios from several hundred-to1 to 10-to1.Involve parents and community leaders in schools.
17Transitions in Schooling Improving Middle Schools (Continued)In 1989 the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development recommended:Develop better curricula that produce students who are literate, understand the sciences, and have a sense of health, ethics, and citizenship.Have teachers team-teach in more flexibly designed curriculum blocks that integrate several disciplines, instead of presenting students with disconnected, rigidly separated 50-minute segments.Boost students’ health and fitness with more in-school programs and help students who need public health care to get it.
18Transitions in Schooling The American High SchoolMany high school graduates are poorly prepared for college.Many are poorly prepared for the demands of the modern, high-performance workplace.The National Research Council (2004) made a number of recommendations for improving U.S. high schools:Get students more engaged in learning.Focus on the psychological factors involved in motivation.Promote a sense of belonging “by personalizing instruction, showing an interest in students’ lives, and creating a supportive, caring social environment” (p. 3).
19Transitions in Schooling High School DropoutsViewed as a serious educational and societal problem for many decades.Adolescents approach adult life with educational deficiencies that severely curtail their economic and social well-being (Elmore, 2009).In the last half of the 20th century and the first several years of the 21st century, U.S. high school dropout rates declined (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008a).
20Transitions in Schooling Trends in High School Dropout RatesFig. 10.1
21Transitions in Schooling The Causes of Dropping OutSchool-related problemsEconomic reasonsSocioeconomic statusFriends drop outPersonal reasons
22Transitions in Schooling Reducing the Dropout RateThe most effective programs provided early reading programs, tutoring, counseling, and mentoring (Lehr & others, 2003).Early detection of children’s school-related difficulties.Get children engaged with school in positive ways.Create caring environments and relationships, use block scheduling, and offer community-service opportunities.
23Transitions in Schooling Transition from High School to CollegeReplays the top-dog phenomenon.Involves a move to a larger more impersonal school structure.Interaction with peers from diverse geographical and sometimes more diverse ethnic backgrounds.
24Transitions in Schooling Transition from High School to CollegeIncreased focus on achievement and performance and their assessment.Students are more likely to:Feel grown up.Have more subjects from which to select.Have more time to spend with peers.Have more opportunities to explore different lifestyles.Enjoy greater independence from parental monitoring.
25Transitions in Schooling Transition from College to WorkHaving a college degree is a strong asset.College graduates earn considerably more money in their lifetimes than those who do not go to college.Income differences between college graduates and high school graduates continue to grow (Occupational Outlook Handbook, ).U.S. colleges train many students to develop general skills rather than vocationally specific skills.The transition from college to work is often a difficult one (Mortimer & Larson, 2002).
26The Social Contexts of Schools Changing Social Developmental ContextsThe social context differs at the preschool, elementary, and secondary level.PreschoolA protected environment.The boundary is the classroom.The Elementary SchoolThe classroom is still the major context.More likely to be experienced as a social unit.
27The Social Contexts of Schools Changing Social Developmental Contexts (Continued)The Middle or Junior High SchoolThe school environment increases in scope and complexity.The social field is the school as a whole rather than the classroom.Adolescents socially interact with many different teachers and peers from a range of social and ethnic backgrounds.
28The Social Contexts of Schools Changing Social Developmental Contexts (Continued)The Middle or Junior High School (Continued)A greater mix of male and female teachers.Social behavior is heavily weighted toward peers, extracurricular activities, clubs, and the community.The student in secondary schools is usually aware of the school as a social system and may be motivated to conform and adapt or to challenge it (Minuchin & Shapiro, 1983).
29The Social Contexts of Schools Classroom Climate and ManagementTwo effective general strategies for creating positive classroom environments are:Using an authoritative strategy.Effectively managing the group’s activities.Strategies of Classroom ManagementAuthoritativeAuthoritarianPermissive
30The Social Contexts of Schools Person-Environment FitSome negative psychological changes might result from a mismatch between the needs of developing adolescents and the opportunities afforded them by the schools they attend.
31The Social Contexts of Schools Teachers, Parents, Peers, and Extracurricular ActivitiesAdolescents’ development is influenced by teachers.TeachersThe following teacher traits are associated with positive student outcomes more than are other traits:EnthusiasmAbility to planPoiseAdaptabilityWarmthFlexibilityAwareness of individual differencesPositive teacher expectations were linked with higher student achievement (Jussim & Eccles, 1993).
32The Social Contexts of Schools Parents and SchoolsParents play important roles in the adolescent’s success in schools.Through effective family management practices.Being involved in adolescents’ schooling.Family ManagementFamily management practices are positively related to grades and self-responsibility, and negatively to school-related problems (Taylor, 1996).
33The Social Contexts of Schools Parental InvolvementIs less in secondary school (Eccles & Harold, 1993).Teachers listed parental involvement as the number one priority in improving education (Chira, 1993).Students were more likely to get As and less likely to repeat a grade or be expelled if both parents were highly involved in their schooling (National Center for Education Statistics, 1997).
34The Social Contexts of Schools Parental Involvement (Continued)Joyce Epstein (2001, 2005, 2007a,b, 2009) offers the following recommendations for increasing parental involvement in adolescents’ schooling:Families have a basic obligation to provide for the safety and health of their adolescents.School have a basic obligation to communicate with families about school programs and the individual progress of their adolescents.Parents’ involvement at school needs to be increased.Parental involvement in the adolescent’s learning activities at home needs to be encouraged.
35The Social Contexts of Schools Peers (peer relations in school contexts)Structure of middle schoolEncourages students to interact with larger numbers of peers on a daily basis (Wentzel, 2003).The relative uncertainty and ambiguity of multiple classroom environments and more complex class schedules may result in students turning to each other for information, social support, and strategies for coping.Peer statusesHave been studied in relation to school success.Being popular or accepted by peers is usually associated with academic success.Being rejected by peers is related to more negative outcomes (Wentzel, 2003).
36The Social Contexts of Schools Peers (peer relations in school contexts)BullyingSignificant numbers of students are victimized by bullies (Hinuja & Patchin, 2009; Juvonen & Galvan, 2008; Pepler & others, 2008).In a national survey of more than 15,000 6th through 10th-grade students, nearly 1 of every 3 students said that they had experienced occasional or frequent involvement as a victim or perpetrator in bullying (Nansel & others, 2001).Friendship
37The Social Contexts of Schools Bullying Behaviors Among U.S. YouthFig. 10.2
38The Social Contexts of Schools Peers (peer relations in school contexts)Bullying (Continued)Who is likely to be bullied?BoysYounger middle school studentsAnxious and socially withdrawn childrenBullies and their victims in adolescence were more likely to experience depression and engage in suicide ideation and attempt suicide than their counterparts who were not involved in bullying (Brunstein Klomek & others, 2007).CyberbullyingWhen a child or adolescent is tormented, threatened, harassed, or humiliated by another child or adolescent on the Internet (Aricak & others, 2008).
39The Social Contexts of Schools Bullying Prevention/InterventionAn increasing number of prevention/intervention programs have been developed to reduce bullying (Breakstone, Dreiblat, & Dreiblat, 2009):Olweus Bullying PreventionBully-Proofing Your SchoolSteps to Respect
40The Social Contexts of Schools Bullying Prevention/InterventionTo reduce bullying, schools can adopt these strategies (Cohn & Canter, 2003; Hyman & others, 2006; Limber, 2004):Get older peers to serve as monitors for bullying and intervene when they see it taking place.Develop school-wide rules and sanctions against bullying and post them throughout the school.Form friendship groups for adolescents who are regularly bullied by peers.
41The Social Contexts of Schools Bullying Prevention/Intervention (Continued)Identify bullies and victims early and use social skills training to improve their behavior.Become involved in school programs to counteract bullying.Reinforce adolescents’ positive behaviors and model interactions that do not include bullying or aggression.
42The Social Contexts of Schools FriendshipHaving friends is related to higher grades and test scores in adolescents (Berndt & Keefe, 1996).One longitudinal study found that having at least one friend was related to academic success over a two-year period (Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997).
43The Social Contexts of Schools Extracurricular ActivitiesAdult-sanctioned.Occur after-school hours.Wide array of activities beyond academic courses:SportsHonor societiesBandDrama clubAcademic clubs (math and language)Participation is linked to higher grades, school engagement, less likelihood of dropping out.
44The Social Contexts of Schools Extracurricular Activities (Continued)Participation is linked to:Higher grades.School engagement.Less likelihood of dropping out of school.Higher self-esteem.Lower rates of depression, delinquency and substance abuse (Fredricks, 2008; Mahoney & other, 2009; Parente & Mahoney, 2009; Peck & others, 2008).
45The Social Contexts of Schools Extracurricular Activities (Continued)The quality of the extracurricular activities matters (Fredricks, 2008; Mahoney & other, 2009; Parente & Mahoney, 2009).High-quality extracurricular activities that are likely to promote positive adolescent development:Competent and supportive adult mentors.Opportunities for increasing school connectedness.Challenging and meaningful activities.Opportunities for improving skills (Fredricks & Eccles, 2006).
46The Social Contexts of Schools CultureAdults often restrict access to peers, especially for girls.Socioeconomic Status and EthnicityAdolescents from low-income, ethnic minority backgrounds have more difficulties in school than do their middle-socioeconomic-status non-Latino white counterparts.Critics argue that schools have not done a good job of educating low-income, ethnic minority adolescents to overcome the barriers to their achievement (Golnick & Chinn, 2009; Taylor & Whittaker, 2009).
47The Social Contexts of Schools The Education of Students from Low-Income BackgroundsMany adolescents in poverty face problems that present barriers to their learning (Hutson, 2008).Schools in low-income areas are more likely to have more students with:Low achievement test scores.Low graduation rates.Small percentages of students going to college.Teachers with less experience.Teachers that are more likely to encourage rote learning (Spring, 2008).
48The Social Contexts of Schools Ethnicity in SchoolsMore than one-third of all African American and almost one-third of all Latino students attend schools in the 47 largest city school districts in the United States.Many of these inner-city schools are still segregated, are grossly underfunded, and do not provide adequate opportunities for children to learn effectively.The effects of SES and the effects of ethnicity are often intertwined (Coltrane & others, 2008; Liu & others, 2008).
49The Social Contexts of Schools Ethnicity in Schools (Continued)Strategies for improving relationships among ethnically diverse students:Turn the class into a jigsaw classroom.Encourage students to have positive personal contact with diverse other students.Encourage students to engage in perspective taking.Help students think critically and be emotionally intelligent about cultural issues.Reduce bias.View the school and community as a team.Be a competent cultural mediator.
50The Social Contexts of Schools Cross-Cultural ComparisonsMany countries recognize that quality, universal education of children and youth is critical for the success of any country.Countries vary considerably in their ability to attain this mission. (Feinstein & Peck, 2008).
51The Social Contexts of Schools Cross-Cultural Comparisons (Continued)Secondary SchoolsSchool begins at age 6 or 7.Stay in school until 14- to 17-years old.Divided into two or more levels.Entrance exams in Japan only.Sports important in United States and Australia.
52The Social Contexts of Schools Cross-Cultural Comparisons (Continued)CollegesWhat is college attendance like around the world?Canada has the largest percentage of 18- to 21-year-olds enrolled in college (41 percent)Belgium (40 percent)France (36 percent)United States (35 percent)Ireland (31 percent)New Zealand (25 percent)(U.S. Department of Education, 1996).
53Adolescents Who Are Exceptional U.S. Children with a Disability Who Receive Special EducationFig. 10.3
54Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Learning DisabilitiesInvolves understanding or using spoken or written language; the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading, writing, or spelling.May also involve difficulty in doing mathematics.The learning problem is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; mental retardation; emotional disorders; or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
55Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Learning Disabilities (Continued)From the mid-1970s through the mid-1990sThere was a dramatic increase in the percentage of U.S. students receiving special education services for a learning disability (from 1.8 percent in 1976 to 1977 to 5.8 percent in 1995 to 1996) (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008b).Some experts say that the dramatic increase reflected poor diagnostic practices and over-identification.Other experts say the increase in the number of children being labeled with a “learning disability” is justified (Bender, 2008; Hallahan, Kaufmann, & Pullen, 2009).About three times as many boys as girls are classified.
56Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Learning Disabilities (Continued)Diagnosing a learning disability is often a difficult task (Bender, 2008; Fritschmann & Solari, 2008).The most common problem that characterizes students with a learning disability involves reading (Shaywitz, Morris, & Shaywitz, 2008).Dyslexia is a category that is reserved for individuals who have a severe impairment in their ability to read and spell.Children and adolescents with learning disabilities often have difficulties in handwriting, spelling, or composition.
57Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Brain Scans and Learning DisabilitiesFig. 10.4
58Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)Children and adolescents show one or more of the following characteristics over a period of time:InattentionHyperactivityImpulsivityChildren and adolescents who are inattentive have difficulty focusing on any one thing and might become bored with a task after only a few minutes.Children and adolescents who are hyperactive show high levels of physical activity, seeming to almost always be in motion.
59Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)The number of children and adolescents with ADHD has increased substantially, by some estimates doubling in the 1990s.The disorder occurs as much as four to nine times more in boys than in girls.There is controversy about the increased diagnosis of ADHD (Gargiulo, 2009).ADHD is not supposed to be diagnosed by school teams because it is a psychiatric disorder with specific criteria (Bender, 2008).
60Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)Definitive causes of ADHD have not been found.A number of causes have been proposed:Some children and adolescents inherit a tendency to develop ADHD from their parents (Goos, Ezzatian, Schachar, 2007).Some children and adolescents develop ADHD because of damage to their brain during prenatal or postnatal development (Banerjee, Middleton, & Faraone, 2007).Cigarette and alcohol exposure during prenatal development and low birth weight (Neuman & others, 2007).
61Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Regions of the Brain in Which Children with ADHD Had a Delayed Peak in the Thickness of the Cerebral CortexFig. 10.5
62Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)The increased academic and social demands as well as stricter standards for behavioral control, often illuminate the problems of the child with ADHD.Elementary school teachers report that the child with ADHD has difficulty:Working independently.Completing seatwork.Organizing work.Restlessness and distractibility also are often noted.
63Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)Treatment of ADHDStimulant medication is effective(Ritalin, or Adderall)Researchers have often found that a combination of medication and behavior management improves the behavior of children with ADHD.Critics argue that many physicians are too quick to prescribe stimulants for children with milder forms of ADHD (Marcovitch, 2004).
64Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Educational IssuesUntil the 1970s most public schools either refused enrollment to children or adolescents with disabilities or inadequately served them.In 1975, Public Law , the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, required that all students with disabilities be given a Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE).In 1990, Public Law was recast as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).IDEA was amended in 1997 and then reauthorized in 2004 and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Turnbull, Huerta, & Stowe, 2009).
65Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Educational Issues (Continued)IDEA spells out broad mandates for services to all children with disabilities (Carter, Prater, & Dynces, 2009; Smith & others, 2008):Evaluation and eligibility determination.Appropriate education.An individualized education plan (IEP).Education in the least restrictive environment (LRE).
66Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Individualized Education Plan (IEP)A written statement that spells out a program that is specifically tailored for children and adolescents with a disability (Gargiulo, 2009).The IEP should be:Related to the student’s learning capacity.Specifically constructed to meet the student’s individual needs and not merely a copy of what is offered to other students.Designed to provide educational benefits.
67Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)A setting that is similar as possible to the one in which children and adolescents who do not have a disability are educated.This provision of the IDEA has given a legal basis to efforts to educate students with a disability in the regular classroom (Smith & others, 2008).The term inclusion describes educating a child or adolescent with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom (Gargiulo, 2009).
68Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Percentage of U.S. Students with Disabilities 6 to 21 Years of Age Receiving Special Services in the General ClassroomFig. 10.6
69Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Adolescents Who Are GiftedHave above-average intelligence (an IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent in some domain, such as art, music, or mathematics.Programs for gifted adolescents in schools typically base admission to the programs on intelligence and academic aptitude. (Pfeiffer & Blei, 2008; VanTassell-Baska & Stambaugh, 2008).
70Adolescents Who Are Exceptional Adolescents Who Are GiftedEllen Winner (1996), an expert on giftedness, describes three characteristics of adolescents who are gifted:Precocity.Marching to their own drummer.A passion to master.Often adolescents who are gifted are socially isolated and under-challenged in the classroom.
71RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091703–620–3660The CEC maintains an information center on the education of children and adolescents who are exceptional and publishes materials on a wide variety of topics.
72RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology (2nd ed.) (Vols 1 and 2) edited by Neal Salkind. (2008). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.A number of leading experts provide in-depth coverage of many educational psychology topics, ranging from learning and cognition to the social and cultural aspects of schools.
73RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS National Dropout Prevention CenterClemson University205 Martin StreetClemson, SC 29634803–656–2599The center operates as a clearinghouse for information about dropout prevention and at-risk youth and publishes the National Dropout Prevention Newsletter.
74RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS Turning Points 2000: Educating Adolescents in the 21st Century by Anthony Jackson and Gayle Davis. (2000). New York: Teachers College Press.This follow-up to earlier Turning Points recommendations includes a number of strategies for meeting the educational needs of adolescents.
75E-LEARNING TOOLSTo help you master the material in this chapter, visit the Online Learning Center for Adolescence, 13th edition at: