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School and Achievement  Schools  Achievement  Careers, Work, and Retirement.

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Presentation on theme: "School and Achievement  Schools  Achievement  Careers, Work, and Retirement."— Presentation transcript:

1 School and Achievement  Schools  Achievement  Careers, Work, and Retirement

2 Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning and Assessment Constructivist Approach: (Piaget) ◦ Emphasizes child’s active construction of knowledge and understanding ◦ Teacher provides support for students exploring their world and developing knowledge. Social constructivist approaches: (Vygotsky) ◦ Focuses on collaboration with others to produce knowledge and understanding. Direct Instruction Approach: ◦ Teacher-centered approach characterized by direction and control, mastery of academic material, maximum time spend on learning tasks, and high expectations of progress. Schools

3 Accountability in Schools No Child Left Behind: ◦ Single score being used as sole predictor ◦ Teaching to test; use of memorization ◦ Tests don’t measure important skills like creativity and social skills Schools

4 Schools and Developmental Status The child-centered kindergarten: ◦ Emphasizes the whole child, physical, cognitive, socioemotional development ◦ Needs, interests, and learning style ◦ Emphasizes learning process Montessori approach: ◦ Teacher is facilitator ◦ Children encouraged to be early decision makers ◦ Fosters independence and cognitive development skills ◦ De-emphasizes verbal interactions Schools

5 High School Concerns about education and students: ◦ Graduate with inadequate skills ◦ Enter college needing remediation classes Schools

6 Trends in High School Dropout Rates Schools Year Percent of 16- to 24-year-olds who have dropped out of school

7 Educating Children with Disabilities Approximately 10 percent of children in the U.S. receive special education or related services More than 40% have a learning disability Schools

8 Diversity of Children Who Have A Disability

9 Learning Disabilities Learning disability characteristics: ◦ A minimum IQ level ◦ A significant difficulty in a school-related area ◦ No other conditions, such as-  severe emotional disorders  second-language background  sensory disabilities  specific neurological deficits Schools

10 Learning Disabilities Dyslexia ◦ Severe impairment in ability to read and spell. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ◦ Inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity ◦ Definitive causes unknown ◦ Higher risk if a sibling already diagnosed ◦ Medications are most common treatment ◦ Other treatment recommendations vary Schools

11 SES and Ethnicity in Schools Low-income, ethnic minority children face more difficulties in school School inequalities- ◦ Schools in poor areas  underfunded  young inexperienced teachers  largely segregated ◦ Inadequate opportunities for effective learning Schools

12 Work in Adolescence U.S. high school students- ◦ 90% receive high school diplomas ◦ 75% work part-time and attend school ◦ Most work hours per week ◦ Most work in service jobs Careers, Work, and Retirement

13 Changing Percentages of Traditional & Dual-Career Couples Careers, Work, and Retirement

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