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Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

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1 Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Chapter 6

2 What is the History of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders?
1600’s – Segregated in asylums s – Mental hospitals 1900s – Advocacy, collaboration, research Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

3 What is the IDEA 04 Definition of Emotional Disturbance
What is the IDEA 04 Definition of Emotional Disturbance? (continued on the next slide) (i). A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time, and to a marked degree, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance (A). An inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors (B). An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers (C). Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

4 What is the IDEA 04 Definition of Emotional Disturbance? (continued)
(D). A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression (E). A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems (ii). Emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

5 What are Some Controversies Over the IDEA 04 Definition?
Vague, internally inconsistent, incomplete, nebulous, often illogical, and self-contradictory Requirement that the disorder must adversely affect educational performance Omission of students with social maladjustment from the emotional disturbance category Subjectivity involved in determining what is meant by "a long period of time" and "to a marked degree Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

6 What is an Alternative Definition?
Forness and Knitzer (1992) proposed a new definition based on the findings of the National Mental Health and Special Education Coalition. They suggested replacing the term emotional or behavioral disorder (EBD) with the term serious emotional disturbance (SED), used in IDEA. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

7 How are Students with EBD Classified?
Educational Internalizing and externalizing disorders Dimensional Conduct disorder, socialized aggression, attention problems-immaturity, anxiety withdrawal, psychotic behavior, motor tension-excess Medical Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

8 What is the Prevalence of EBD?
2% of the school-age population (USDOE estimate) The actual number of students ages 6-21 being identified and served under the IDEA 04 category of emotional disturbance is less than half the USDOE estimate. 8% of students with disabilities fall under the emotional disturbance label, the fourth largest IDEA 04 disability category More males than females Older students identified more than younger Poverty appears to double the risk of EBD African American males are overrepresented Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

9 What are the Causes of EBD?
Unknown Environment Family factors School factors Genetics Combination of Environment and Genetics Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

10 What are Possible Characteristics of Students with EBD?
They vary Differ in males and females Differ across age Related to ethnicity Externalizing behaviors Hitting, fighting Most often referred Internalizing behaviors Anxiety, withdrawal Schizophrenia Typically score in the low average range of intelligence Language deficits Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

11 How are Students with EBD Identified?
Interviews with parents and teachers Use of academic testing Observations Informal data collection Functional Behavioral Assessment Use of behavior rating scales, behavior assessment systems, personality inventories, and projective tests Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

12 What Do I Teach Students with EBD?
Academic Skills Social Skills Service-Learning Programs Intervention must be sustained, flexible, positive, collaborative, culturally appropriate, and continually monitored. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

13 What Transition Planning May be Needed for Students with EBD?
Relevant, engaging, and useful curriculum Include vocational and life skills Preparation for postsecondary educational experience May include transition from juvenile detention and transition from homelessness to school Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

14 How Do I Teach Students with EBD?
Early Intervention Direct Instruction Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Behavioral Management Intervention Behavioral intervention plans Techniques to increase behaviors Techniques to decrease behaviors Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

15 What Behavioral Management Techniques Should be Considered?
Positive and Negative Reinforcement Token Economy Contingency Contracts Premack Principle Differential Reinforcement Time-out Response Cost Extinction Punishment Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

16 What Non-behaviorial Techniques Might be Considered?
Creative Dramatics Play Therapy Bibliotherapy Pharmacological Treatment Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

17 What are Considerations for the Instructional Environment?
Motivate students. Provide a safe environment. Arrange room for positive social interaction. Provide structure and consistency. Maximize academic engagement. Use school-wide positive behavioral supports. Encourage cross-age tutoring. Provide individual and group contingencies. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

18 What Types of Instructional Technology Can be Used?
Computer-based activities Self-monitoring Self-paced lessons Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

19 What are Some Considerations for the General Education Teacher?
Provide effective instruction. Practice effective classroom management. Provide positive behavioral supports. Show respect for students. Plan relevant lessons. Differentiate instruction. Demonstrate sensitivity. Model desirable behaviors. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students

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