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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 16 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Schools, Achievement,

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 16 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Schools, Achievement,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 16 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Schools, Achievement, and Work

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Schools, Achievement, and Work Schools Achievement Careers, Work, and RetirementWork

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning and Assessment Direct Instruction Approach –Teacher-centered approach characterized by Teacher direction and control Mastery of academic material High expectations for students’ progress Maximum time spent on learning tasks Schools

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning and Assessment Cognitive Constructivist Approaches –Emphasizes child’s active, cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding Teacher provides support for students exploring their world and developing knowledge Main theory: Piaget’s theory Schools

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning and Assessment Social constructivist approaches – Focuses on collaboration with others to produce knowledge and understanding – Main theory: Vygotsky’s theory Constructivist approaches – Learner is center of educational process; learner-center principles Schools

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Accountability in Schools State-mandated tests have taken on a more powerful role — No Child Left Behind Critics argue that they lead to – Single score being used as sole predictor – Teaching to test; use of memorization – Tests don’t measure important skills like creativity and social skills Schools

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Schools and Developmental Status Early childhood education – Many ways young children are educated The child-centered kindergarten – Emphasizes the whole child Physical, cognitive, socioemotional development Needs, interests, and learning styles Emphasizes learning process Schools

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Developmentally Appropriate and Inappropriate Education Developmentally appropriate practice — focuses on typical development of children within age span (age appropriateness) and uniqueness of each child (individual appropriateness) Developmentally inappropriate practice — relies on abstract paper-and-pencil activities given to large groups Schools

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Controversy in Early Childhood Education What should curriculum be? – Child-centered, constructivist approach – Academic, instructivist approach Child dependent on direct instruction Emphasizes accountability, high standards Many high quality programs includes both Schools

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Elementary School Change from “home-child’’ to “school-child” New roles and obligations Too often, early schooling has more negative feedback; lowers child’s self-esteem Teachers often pressured to cover curriculum; – Tight scheduling; may harm children Schools

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Educating Adolescents Benefits Independent from parents’ monitoring More opportunities for friends More subjects to select from Challenging work Feel more grown up Schools Drawbacks Stressful — many changes at once Top-dog phenomenon Transition to Middle or Junior High School

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Effective Schools for Young Adolescents Criticisms – Watered-down versions of high schools – Lack age-appropriate curricular and extracurricular schedules – Massive, impersonal, and lacking Recommendations of Carnegie Foundation Schools

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. High School Concerns about education and students – Graduate with inadequate skills – Enter college needing remediation classes – Student drop out rates Ethnic and racial differences Gender differences Schools

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. High School Need for more effective programs More support needed to enable students to graduate with knowledge and skills needed to succeed Need higher expectations for student achievement Schools

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Trends in High School Dropout Rates Schools Fig Year Percent of 16- to 24-year-olds who have dropped out of school

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. College and Adult Education Transition to College – Replays the top-dog phenomenon – Many of same benefits found in high school – Movement to a larger, more impersonal school – Interact with peers of more diverse backgrounds – Increased focus on achievement and assessment Schools

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. College and Adult Education Adult education includes – Literacy training – Community development – University credit programs – On-the-job training – Continuing professional education Women — the majority of adult learners Schools

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Educating Children with Disabilities Approximately 10 percent of children in the U.S. receive special education or related services Schools

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Diversity of Children Who Have A Disability Fig. 16.4

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Disabilities Learning disability characteristics: – A minimum IQ level – A significant difficulty in a school-related area – No other conditions, such as severe emotional disorders second-language background sensory disabilities specific neurological deficits Schools

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Disabilities Dyslexia — severe impairment in ability to read and spell Dyscalculia — impairment of math ability Diagnosing is difficult task Many intervention strategies available Schools

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Disabilities Boys classified about 3x more than girls; biological vulnerability Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) — children consistently show one or more of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity – Diagnosis and characteristics – Causes and treatment Schools

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Special Educational Law Public Law , the Education for All Handicapped Children Act –Individualized education plan (IEP) — written program tailored to child with disability –Least restrictive environment (LRE) — child with disability educated in setting similar to where other children educated –Inclusion — educating child with special education needs in regular classroom Schools

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Socioeconomic Status in Schools Low-income, ethnic minority children face more difficulties in school Compensatory Education –Project Head Start — provides children from low- income families opportunity to acquire skills and experiences important for school success School inequalities –School in poor areas poorly equipped, have inexperienced teachers Schools

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnicity in Schools Minority students are majority in some schools Many inner city schools – Still segregated – Grossly underfunded – Do not provide adequate opportunities to learn effectively – Effects of SES and ethnicity often intertwined – Claims of institutional racism in U.S. schools Schools

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Improving relationships among ethnically diverse students Turn class into jigsaw classroom Use technology to foster cooperation Positive personal contact with diverse other students Engage in perspective taking Help students think critically and be emotionally intelligent Reduce bias View school and community as team Be competent cultural mediator Schools

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Incentives such as rewards and punishments Rewards can undermine motivation Achievement Intrinsic Factors such as self- determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort Increased by opportunity for choices

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Determination and Choice Achievement Student internal motivation and intrinsic interest in school tasks increase when more opportunities for choice available Some rewards can undermine learning; rewards most effective with high interest Rewards convey mastery information Developmental shifts

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mastery Motivation Mastery orientation — task-oriented; concerned with learning strategies Helpless orientation — one seems trapped by difficulty and attributes one’s difficulty to a lack of ability Performance orientation — achievement outcomes; winning matters Achievement

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Attribution Theory Attributions — perceived causes of outcomes – Internal — person’s personality, motives, effort – External — situational and environmental factors Self-Efficacy – Belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes Achievement

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Goal-Setting, Planning, and Self-Monitoring Self-efficacy and achievement improve when individuals set goals that are – Specific – Proximal (short-term) – Challenging Students can set both long and short-term goals; need to plan to reach goals and monitor progress Achievement

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnicity and Culture Ethnicity and Achievement – Often tangled with Socioeconomic Status SES better predictor of achievements Many minorities challenged by – Negative stereotypes and discrimination – Poverty – Culture and conflicting neighborhood values Achievement

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Educational Achievement American children perform poorly on international math and science tests – Compare different samples of students – Different attitudes about achievement – Different teaching styles – Differing parental expectations Achievement

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cross- Cultural Comparisons of Educational Achievement Achievement Fig. 16.6

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Career Developmental Changes Young children High school College Idealistic fantasies about what they want to be when they grow up Career decision-making more serious as they explore different career possibilities Choosing major or specialization designed to lead to work in a field Early adulthood Start full-time occupation Careers, Work, and Retirement

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Values and Careers Important aspect of choosing a career — match career to one’s values Monitoring the Occupational Outlook –Service-producing industries will account for most new jobs –Jobs requiring college degrees will be fastest- growing and highest-paying –Labor force participation rates of women projected to increase Careers, Work, and Retirement

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Work in Adolescence U.S. high school students – 90% receive high school diplomas – 75% work part-time and attend school – Most work hours per week – Most work in service jobs Work more than in other developed countries; less than developing countries Careers, Work, and Retirement

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Advantages and Disadvantages of Part-Time Work for Adolescents Cons Give up sports Forego social affairs with peers Less sleep Balance demands of work, school, family, and peers Lower grades Careers, Work, and Retirement Pros Understand how business world works Learn how to get and keep a job Manage money Budget time Pride in accomplishments Evaluate goals

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Work in Adulthood Changing gender roles – Increasing dual-earner couples – Men increasing responsibility for maintaining home – Women increasing responsibility for breadwinning – Men showing greater interest in family and parenting Careers, Work, and Retirement

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Changing Percentages of Traditional & Dual-Career Couples Careers, Work, and Retirement Fig. 16.8

41 Slide 41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Age and Job Satisfaction Careers, Work, and Retirement Fig. 16.9

42 Slide 42 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Careers and Work in Middle Adulthood Midlife time of evaluation, assessment, and reflection Recognizing limitations in career progress Deciding whether to change jobs or careers Rebalance family and work Planning for retirement Careers, Work, and Retirement

43 Slide 43 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Work in Late Adulthood Percentage of older adults who work part- time steadily increased since 1960s – Good health – Strong psychological commitment to work – Distaste for retirement – Cognitive ability Many participate in unpaid work Careers, Work, and Retirement

44 Slide 44 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Retirement Option to retire late twentieth-century phenomenon in U.S. Today’s workers will spend 10 to 15 percent of their lives in retirement 80 percent of baby boomers said they expect to work during retirement Flexibility is key factor in adjustment Careers, Work, and Retirement

45 Slide 45 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 16


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