2 Some research findings-validity Children in classrooms that score higher on the ERS do better on a wide range of developmental outcomesThis has been found by many researchers, in many studies, across children of varying backgrounds, cultures, and in other countries.For example…
3 Head Start FACES Study p.6, FACES Findings (June 2000) 40 Head Start programs; 518 classrooms; 3,200 childrenp.6, FACES Findings (June 2000)
4 Children’s Language Skills over Time by Quality of Child Care Classroom Practices Cost, Quality & Outcomes Study, 19994
5 Validity: CQOChildren’s Math Skills over Time by Quality of Child Care Classroom Practices and Maternal EducationCost, Quality & Outcomes Study, 19995
7 Children in classes with higher ECERS scores have repeatedly been found to do better on outcomes that are considered very importantLanguage abilityPre-academic skills (math and reading readiness)Attitudes towards child care, distress levels, and perceptions of their own competenceRelationships with teachersSocial skills (in US, UK, Germany)Attention deficit disorder (lower for school-agers who were in higher quality) (Study from United Kingdom)These differences are lasting7
8 Note that some important child outcomes have not been studied, but they are still important in terms of what the ECERS evaluates and children’s developmental needsAccident ratesHealth status (illness, physical condition)Self-help skillsCreativity in thinking and the artsScience knowledge and scientific thinkingSocial Studies8
9 Understanding new research findings We are more likely to find differences in outcomes when there is more variation in ERS scores, (more lower and higher scores present). If there is not much difference in scores, then outcomes may not differ across classrooms.It is important to understand this, because in some studies ERS scores do not predict child development outcomes because of a lack of variation in scoresOne example…9
10 NC More At Four Classroom Scores Evaluation of the North Carolina More at Four Pre-kindergarten Program: Children’s Longitudinal Outcomes and Classroom Quality in Kindergarten ( )10
11 Reliable use of the ERS requires… Observers who are trained to acceptable levels of reliabilityObservers who are not biasedObservers who score for the children; not for the providerA 3 or more hour assessment of the regular daily program—not quality for a day.
12 The effect of “fads” in early childhood assessment New measures of quality, with a narrow perspective, are developed as interest in specific area of development become popularBecause the ERS assess quality from a broad perspective, the ERS are comprehensive quality measures that will withstand the test of time-- and remain meaningful as our priorities for children come and go.12
13 How the Environment Rating Scales measure quality Global Process Quality: the environment that children really experience, that has a direct effect on their development.The ERS use hundreds of indicators of quality, none of which is important by itself. It is the combination of indicators (average total or factor score) that is important, not any one detail.It is not realistically possible to get a perfect score on the ERS. A score of 5 is considered the benchmark for high quality.
14 Subscales in each scale Space and FurnishingsPersonal Care RoutinesLanguage and ReasoningActivitiesInteractionsProgram StructureParents and Staff
15 Sample item Item 4. Room arrangement for play 1 3 5 7
16 What the ECERS really measures: what all children need for quality of life Chances for children to a strong sense of self and build positive relationships with other children, and with the adults who care for and educate themAppropriate learning opportunities that meet their wide range of developmental needsProtection of children’s health and safety
17 Positive relationships ECERS evaluates whether a child’s sense of value and competence have a good chance of being positively set during the early years, because once set, it is difficult to change these perceptions.Also assesses whether young children can develop the social/emotional skills of empathy, sympathy, independence, cooperation, and self-discipline under positive conditions or society pays a high price later.
18 Appropriate learningThe ECERS considers child development and what is required for long-term academic success, as well as life-long success.The ECERS helps us see whether developmental pre-requisites can be accomplished, and if each child can progress as they should.It allows us to evaluate whether the teaching strategies are effective and appropriate for use with each child.
19 Protection—HealthECERS assesses how well we meet the health and safety needs of children, based on national standards of excellence which often differ from state standards, in content and/or assessment procedures.As the medical field requires, early childhood programs are evaluated as public health environments, considering their effects on the people in those environments as well as on the greater community.
20 Protection—SafetyAttention to safety issues is more important for children cared for in groups because of numbers of children. ECERS helps us determine how well we protect children, minimizing hazards and supervising for safety, based on national standards and rigorous assessment procedures.