Transportation Movement of persons and goods over space A B
Transportation Infrastructure Vehicle / Service Users / Content Education Enforcement Engineering Control System Environment
Users / Content People Passenger Transportation Goods Freight Transportation Share of total passengers or tons-km Distance Passengers Commuting Shopping Recreation Business Tourism Migration Waste disposal Local distribution Trade Energy & Raw Materials Freight Source: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.
Users / Content PassengersFreight Board, get off and transfer without assistance Must be loaded, unloaded and transferred Process information and act on it without assistance The information must be processed through logistics managers Make choices between means of transport often irrationally Logistics managers make choices between means of transport rationally Source: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.
Evolution of Transportation 2000 MaritimeRoadRailAir 1800 1900 1950 Docks Locks Rails Omnibus Steam engine Electric motor Balloons Dirigibles Iron hulls Internal combustion engine Metro Tramway Automobile Liners Bicycles Planes Trucks Buses Electric car Hydrogen car Airfoils Super tankers TGV Maglev Jet engine Jet Plane Container ships Helicopters Bulk ships Highways Jumbo Jet
Evolution of Transportation 1500-1840 Average speed of wagon and sail ships: 16 km/hr 1850-1930 Average speed of trains: 100 km/hr. Average speed of steamships: 25 km/hr 1950 Average speed of airplanes: 480-640 km/hr 1970 Average speed of jet planes: 800-1120 km/hr 1990 Numeric transmission: instantaneous Source: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.
Transportation Engineering One of the specialty areas of civil engineering –Development of facilities for the movement of goods and people –Planning, design, operation and maintenance Multidisciplinary study
“For millions of Americans, girding for gridlock is a teeth teeth-grinding daily ritual. And with more cars on the road every day, engineers and other professionals trained to reduce traffic congestion are finding plenty of job opportunities” “PAY AND PERKS: $45,000 to $150,000. Producing tangible change is a source of job satisfaction for many.” U.S. News and World Report, February 18, 2002
Highways and Highway Components Highway Transportation Characteristics
Outline Functional classification of roads Road functions Hierarchical structure of road networks Mobility vs. accessibility Mobility vs. transportation mode Highway components Cross-sections Highway plan and profile Interchanges Rural and urban intersections
Transportation System Definition of Transportation Modes A transportation system is an infrastructure that serves to move people and goods efficiently. The transportation system consists of fixed facilities, flow entities, and a control component. Efficient = safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, environmentally compatible.
Transportation System Major transportation subsystems Land transportation: highway, rail Air transportation: domestic, international Water transportation: inland, coastal, ocean Pipelines: oil, gas, other
Highway Transportation System Fixed facilities: roads, intersections, interchanges, service stations, etc. Flow entities: passenger cars, buses, trucks, pedestrians, etc. Control component: highway administration, local transportation agencies, transportation engineering.
Highway Transportation Engineering Definition The application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation, and management of roads, streets and highways, their networks, terminals, abutting lands, and relationships with other modes of transportation. Areas of highway transportation engineering: –Planning of streets and highways –Geometric design of road facilities –Traffic operations and control –Traffic safety –Maintenance of road facilities and controls
Rural Urban Hierarchical Structure of Road Networks
Mobility vs. Accessibility Road ClassRoad Function Freeways Through movement exclusively Surface Arterials Through movement primary and some land access Collectors Traffic movement to higher rank roads, access to abutting properties Local Roads Access to abutting land and local traffic movement
Mobility vs. Transportation Mode Capacity capacity in veh/h = capacity in veh/h/lane x number of lanes capacity in persons/h = capacity in veh/h x average vehicle occupancy
Mobility vs. Transportation Mode Capacity Persons/hrVehicles/hrFacility 6,000 x 1.7 = 10,200 2,000 x 3 = 6,000Three-lane urban freeway 2,400 x 1.7 = 4,080800 x 3 = 2,400Three-lane urban arterial 100 x 80 = 8,000100 x 1 =100One lane of buses 19,000One track of light rail 40,000One track of heavy rail