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Highway and Traffic Engineering

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Presentation on theme: "Highway and Traffic Engineering"— Presentation transcript:

1 Highway and Traffic Engineering
Overview of Transportation Engineering Dr. Wael Awad, Fall 08/09 Source: Professor Jessica Guo, Wisconsin University.


3 Transportation A B Movement of persons and goods over space

4 Transportation Environment Control System Engineering Users / Content
Education Enforcement Engineering Infrastructure Vehicle / Service Users / Content Environment

5 Share of total passengers or tons-km
Users / Content People  Passenger Transportation Goods  Freight Transportation Commuting Shopping Recreation Share of total passengers or tons-km Waste disposal Local distribution Trade Energy & Raw Materials Freight Business Tourism Migration Passengers Distance Source: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.

6 Users / Content Passengers Freight
Board, get off and transfer without assistance Must be loaded, unloaded and transferred Process information and act on it without assistance The information must be processed through logistics managers Make choices between means of transport often irrationally Logistics managers make choices between means of transport rationally Source: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.

7 Vehicles / Services

8 Infrastructure

9 Control System

10 Evolution of Transportation
1800 1900 1950 Docks Locks Rails Omnibus Steam engine Electric motor Balloons Dirigibles Iron hulls Internal combustion engine Metro Tramway Automobile Liners Bicycles Planes Trucks Buses Electric car Hydrogen Airfoils Super tankers TGV Maglev Jet engine Jet Plane Container ships Helicopters Bulk ships Highways Jumbo Jet 2000 Maritime Road Rail Air

11 Evolution of Transportation
Average speed of wagon and sail ships: 16 km/hr Average speed of trains: 100 km/hr. Average speed of steamships: 25 km/hr 1950 Average speed of airplanes: km/hr 1970 Average speed of jet planes: km/hr 1990 Numeric transmission: instantaneous Source: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.

12 Evolution of Transportation
1000 Jet Plane Road Rail 750 Maritime Air 500 HST Propeller Plane 250 Automobile 100 Rail Stage Coach 50 Liner Clipper Ship Containership 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000

13 Contemporary Challenges

14 Transportation Transportation Multi-User Multi-Scale Multi-Modal
Multi-Impacts Transportation


16 Transportation Engineering
One of the specialty areas of civil engineering Development of facilities for the movement of goods and people Planning, design, operation and maintenance Multidisciplinary study

17 Transportation Engineering

18 Transportation Engineering
“For millions of Americans, girding for gridlock is a teeth teeth-grinding daily ritual. And with more cars on the road every day, engineers and other professionals trained to reduce traffic congestion are finding plenty of job opportunities” “PAY AND PERKS: $45,000 to $150,000. Producing tangible change is a source of job satisfaction for many.” U.S. News and World Report, February 18, 2002

19 Highways and Highway Components
Highway Transportation Characteristics

20 Outline Functional classification of roads Road functions
Hierarchical structure of road networks Mobility vs. accessibility Mobility vs. transportation mode Highway components Cross-sections Highway plan and profile Interchanges Rural and urban intersections

21 Transportation System
Definition of Transportation Modes A transportation system is an infrastructure that serves to move people and goods efficiently. The transportation system consists of fixed facilities, flow entities, and a control component. Efficient = safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, environmentally compatible.

22 Transportation System
Major transportation subsystems Land transportation: highway, rail Air transportation: domestic, international Water transportation: inland, coastal, ocean Pipelines: oil, gas, other

23 Highway Transportation System
Fixed facilities: roads, intersections, interchanges, service stations, etc. Flow entities: passenger cars, buses, trucks, pedestrians, etc. Control component: highway administration, local transportation agencies, transportation engineering.

24 Highway Transportation Engineering
Definition The application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation, and management of roads, streets and highways, their networks, terminals, abutting lands, and relationships with other modes of transportation. Areas of highway transportation engineering: Planning of streets and highways Geometric design of road facilities Traffic operations and control Traffic safety Maintenance of road facilities and controls

25 Mobility Road Functions Accessibility

26 Hierarchical Structure of Road Networks
Rural Urban

27 Mobility vs. Accessibility
Road Class Road Function Freeways Through movement exclusively Surface Arterials Through movement primary and some land access Collectors Traffic movement to higher rank roads, access to abutting properties Local Roads Access to abutting land and local traffic movement

28 Hierarchical Structure of Road Networks

29 Mobility vs. Accessibility

30 Mobility vs. Transportation Mode

31 Mobility vs. Transportation Mode Capacity
capacity in veh/h = capacity in veh/h/lane x number of lanes capacity in persons/h = capacity in veh/h x average vehicle occupancy

32 Mobility vs. Transportation Mode Capacity
Facility Vehicles/hr Persons/hr Three-lane urban freeway 2,000 x 3 = 6,000 6,000 x 1.7 = 10,200 Three-lane urban arterial 800 x 3 = 2,400 2,400 x 1.7 = 4,080 One lane of buses 100 x 1 =100 100 x 80 = 8,000 One track of light rail 19,000 One track of heavy rail 40,000

33 Highway Components Cross-section

34 Highway Components Highway plan and profile

35 Highway Components Urban Intersections

36 Highway Components Rural Intersections

37 Highway Components Interchanges

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