3 TransportationABMovement of persons and goods over space
4 Transportation Environment Control System Engineering Users / Content EducationEnforcementEngineeringInfrastructureVehicle / ServiceUsers / ContentEnvironment
5 Share of total passengers or tons-km Users / ContentPeople Passenger TransportationGoods Freight TransportationCommutingShoppingRecreationShare of total passengers or tons-kmWaste disposalLocal distributionTradeEnergy & Raw MaterialsFreightBusinessTourism MigrationPassengersDistanceSource: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.
6 Users / Content Passengers Freight Board, get off and transfer without assistanceMust be loaded, unloaded and transferredProcess information and act on it without assistanceThe information must be processed through logistics managersMake choices between means of transport often irrationallyLogistics managers make choices between means of transport rationallySource: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.
11 Evolution of Transportation Average speed of wagon and sailships: 16 km/hrAverage speed of trains: 100 km/hr.Average speed of steamships: 25 km/hr1950 Average speed of airplanes: km/hr1970 Average speed of jet planes: km/hr1990 Numeric transmission: instantaneousSource: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University.
12 Evolution of Transportation 1000Jet PlaneRoadRail750MaritimeAir500HSTPropeller Plane250Automobile100RailStage Coach50LinerClipper ShipContainership18001850190019502000
16 Transportation Engineering One of the specialty areas of civil engineeringDevelopment of facilities for the movement of goods and peoplePlanning, design, operation and maintenanceMultidisciplinary study
18 Transportation Engineering “For millions of Americans, girding for gridlock is a teeth teeth-grinding daily ritual. And with more cars on the road every day, engineers and other professionals trained to reduce traffic congestion are finding plenty of job opportunities”“PAY AND PERKS: $45,000 to $150,000. Producing tangible change is a source of job satisfaction for many.”U.S. News and World Report, February 18, 2002
19 Highways and Highway Components Highway Transportation Characteristics
20 Outline Functional classification of roads Road functions Hierarchical structure of road networksMobility vs. accessibilityMobility vs. transportation modeHighway componentsCross-sectionsHighway plan and profileInterchangesRural and urban intersections
21 Transportation System Definition of Transportation ModesA transportation system is an infrastructure that serves to move people and goods efficiently. The transportation system consists of fixed facilities, flow entities, and a control component.Efficient = safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, environmentally compatible.
22 Transportation System Major transportation subsystemsLand transportation: highway, railAir transportation: domestic, internationalWater transportation: inland, coastal, oceanPipelines: oil, gas, other
23 Highway Transportation System Fixed facilities: roads, intersections, interchanges, service stations, etc.Flow entities: passenger cars, buses, trucks, pedestrians, etc.Control component: highway administration, local transportation agencies, transportation engineering.
24 Highway Transportation Engineering DefinitionThe application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional design, operation, and management of roads, streets and highways, their networks, terminals, abutting lands, and relationships with other modes of transportation.Areas of highway transportation engineering:Planning of streets and highwaysGeometric design of road facilitiesTraffic operations and controlTraffic safetyMaintenance of road facilities and controls
26 Hierarchical Structure of Road Networks RuralUrban
27 Mobility vs. Accessibility Road ClassRoad FunctionFreewaysThrough movement exclusivelySurface ArterialsThrough movement primary and some land accessCollectorsTraffic movement to higher rank roads, access to abutting propertiesLocal RoadsAccess to abutting land and local traffic movement
31 Mobility vs. Transportation Mode Capacity capacity in veh/h =capacity in veh/h/lane x number of lanescapacity in persons/h =capacity in veh/h x average vehicle occupancy
32 Mobility vs. Transportation Mode Capacity FacilityVehicles/hrPersons/hrThree-lane urban freeway2,000 x 3 = 6,0006,000 x 1.7 = 10,200Three-lane urban arterial800 x 3 = 2,4002,400 x 1.7 = 4,080One lane of buses100 x 1 =100100 x 80 = 8,000One track of light rail19,000One track of heavy rail40,000