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INTRODUCTION TO INFRASTRUCTURE: AN INTRODUCTION TO CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Chapter 4: Transportation Infrastructure.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO INFRASTRUCTURE: AN INTRODUCTION TO CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Chapter 4: Transportation Infrastructure."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION TO INFRASTRUCTURE: AN INTRODUCTION TO CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Chapter 4: Transportation Infrastructure

2 Overview  Roads  Mass Transit  Waterways  Tunnels  ASCE Grades

3 Roads

4 Roads: Categories

5 Roads: Street Design  Crowning  Streets are constructed with a side slope, usually 2% (2 inches per 100 inches).  Prevents accumulation of water and Ice

6 Roads: Street Design  Cross Section  A vertical “slice” of the street

7 Roads: Street Design  Vertical alignment  Side-view or profile view of the road.

8 Roads: Street Design  Horizontal alignment  Plan view of the road

9 Roads: Construction  Material  Asphalt vs. Concrete  Granular Subgrade  Curves  Must not be too tight for vehicle speed

10 Roads: Intersections  Design depends on vehicles  Intersections  Interchanges  Roundabouts

11 Roads: Intersections  Conflict Points  Vehicle paths diverge, merge, or cross  Typical intersection has 32

12 Mass Transit

13  Includes buses, trolleys, ferries, and rail  Only 5% of Americans use mass transit  Decrease in ridership decreases revenue  Decrease in revenue creates problems in sustaining the systems

14 Mass Transit: Rail  3 types of transit rail  Light Rail Low speed street cars and trams (Houston Metro)  Heavy Rail Higher speed, higher volume (NY Subway)  Commuter Rail High speed, high volume rail between adjacent cities.

15 Rail: Shanghai Maglev Train

16  Background  China experienced rapid economic growth in the 21 st century  Greater demand for high speed passenger transportation resulted.  Discussion of the feasibility of a Shanghai high speed rail began  Advantages like no contact, high speed, low energy consumption, and less environmental impact led to the approval of the project.  Train carries 574 and travels up to 505 km/hr

17 Rail: Shanghai Maglev Train  Maglev: Electromagnetic levitation  Electromagnetic field generated through the excitation of on board magnets and guideway magnets.  Magnets then attract each other, pulling the train upward.  Levitation gap stability controlled by current.

18 Rail: Shanghai Maglev Train  Suspension:  Approx. 15mm (.59in)  Magnetic attraction varies inversely with the cube of the distance between the magnets.  Slight variations in distance will cause dramatic force changes.  How do we fix it? Closely monitoring and constantly adjusting the current

19 Waterways

20  Waterways include rivers, channels, ports, locks, etc…  12% of domestic and 80% of international goods are transported using waterways  Rivers like the Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri are called “Working Rivers”  30,000 miles of navigable waterways  Controlling flows and dredging bottom sediment keep channels open at necessary water depth.

21 Waterways: Ports  Allows for Intermodal transfer of goods  Standardized containers used  e.g. barge to rail or truck  Approx 150 ports in the U.S.  3 of which rank in the top 20 worldwide busiest ports  China has more of the largest and busiest ports than any other country.

22 Waterways: Locks  Permit ship travel around a dam or through a shallow stretch  Gates open or close to control flow and consequently raise or lower a ship  Approx 250 locks in the US. (29 in the Mississippi alone)

23 Tunnels

24  Very costly, but very effective.  Used primarily for rail and roadway transportation  Other uses  Water supply conveyance  Hydroelectric power  Utilities  Water storage

25 Tunnels: The Channel Tunnel  AKA “Chunnel”  Runs between Britain and France  Declared one of the 7 Wonders of the Modern World by ASCE  30 miles long, 250 feet below sea level

26 Tunnels: Twin Tunnels  Located in Shanghai, China, under the Yangtze River.  Holds 3 lanes of traffic and one lane of rail  Used the world’s largest tunnel boring machine (50ft diameter)

27 ASCE Grades  ASCE- American Society of Civil Engineers  The ASCE gives a report card for the infrastructure of the US  Most recent grades range from D- to C+  Roads: D-  Mass Transit: D  Waterways: D-  Rail: C-  Why are these grades so low?


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