Presentation on theme: "Topic 9 – Transportation and Communications"— Presentation transcript:
1 Topic 9 – Transportation and Communications A – Transport Networks and CostsB – Transport SystemsSource: Frederick P. Stutz and Barney Warf (2012) The World Economy: Resources, Location, Trade, and Development, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall, Saddle River, NJ.
2 For personal and classroom use only Conditions of UsageFor personal and classroom use onlyExcludes any other forms of communication such as conference presentations, published reports and papers.No modification and redistribution permittedCannot be published, in whole or in part, in any form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent.CitationDr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University.
3 A – Transport Networks and Costs The Function of TransportationTransportation NetworksTransportation Costs
4 1. Transportation as a Derived Demand ActivityWorkingVacationingManufacturingDirectCommutingTaxiAir travelTouring busTrucksContainershipWarehousingIndirectEnergyDerived Demand
5 1. Core Components of Transportation ModesConveyances (vehicles) used to move passengers or freight.Mobile elements of transportation.InfrastructuresPhysical support of transport modes, such as routes and terminals.Fixed elements of transportation.NetworksSystem of linked locations (nodes).Functional and spatial organization of transportation.FlowsMovements of people, freight and information over their network.Flows have origins, intermediary locations and destinations.
6 1. Operational Differences between Passengers and Freight Transportation Board, get off and transfer without assistance.Process information and act on it without assistance.Make choices between transport modes without assistance but often irrationally.Require travel accommodations related to comfort and safety.Must be loaded, unloaded and transferred.Information must be processed through logistics managers.Logistics managers meet choices between transport modes rationally.Require limited travel accommodations.PassengersFreightSource: adapted from EU-funded Urban Transport Research Project Results,
8 3. Distance, Modal Choice and Transport Costs RoadC3Transport costs per unitRailMaritimeD1D2Distance
9 3. Freight Transport Costs in Dollars per Ton-Mile Source: Ronald Ballou (1998) “Business Logistics Management”, 4th Edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
10 Average Haul Length, Domestic Freight in the United States, 1960-2003 (in miles) Source: BTS. Table 1-35: Average Length of Haul, Domestic Freight and Passenger Modes.
11 Typical Ocean Freight Costs for some Products (Asia – United States or Asia – Europe) Typical Shelf PriceShipping CostsShipping Costs ShareLCD TV Set$700$4.000.5%Digital Camera (high range)$450$0.150.03%Vacuum Cleaner$150$1.000.6%Scotch Whisky (bottle)$500.3%Coffee (1 kg)$153.3%Biscuits (Tin)$3$0.051.7%Beer (Can)$1$0.011.0%Apple$0.75$0.045.3%Source: ISL Shipping Statistics Yearbook 2003.
12 Household Expenditures on Transport, United States, 2005 Source: BLS Consumer Expenditure Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Available at:
13 B – Transport Systems Passenger and Freight Options Transport Modes Telecommunications
14 1. Main Passenger Modal Options AirRoadRailMaritimeScheduledCarIntercityFerryCharterTaxiHSRRoRoHigh SpeedVan/BusTransitCruiseMotorcycleSubwayCommuterBicycleLRTWalkingMonorail
15 1. Main Freight Modal Options AirTruckRailMaritimeInland / CoastalPipelinePackagePackageUnit TrainBreak-bulkRiver/seaPipelineFreighterOilLess than Truckload (LTL)CarloadLiquid BulkTowBellyholdGasTruckload (TL)BoxcarRoRoTank bargeWaterHeavyTank CarDeck bargeDry VanDry BulkFlat CarHopper bargeTankReeferContainerSource: adapted from W.J. DeWitt. Freight Transport & Modes in Global Logistics & Supply Chains.FlatbedContainerHopperCurtainsideGondolaReeferISO ContainerHopperIntermodalReeferOpen TopFlatrackTOFCChassisDomesticTank
19 Rail Track Mileage and Number of Class I Rail Carriers, United States, 1830-2008 Source: BTS and Association of American Railroads. J.L. Ringwalt (1888) Development of Transportation Systems in the United States, Philadelphia: Railway World, Rand McNally (1898) Miles of railroads in the United States, , Interstate Commerce Commission, Statistics of Railways in the United States. BTS and Association of American Railroads.Note: Data represent miles of road owned (aggregate length of road, excluding yard tracks, sidings, and parallel lines).
20 2. Domains of Maritime Circulation Source: Shipping density data adapted from National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, A Global Map of Human Impacts to Marine Ecosystems.
21 2. Evolution of Containerships (LOA – Beam – Draft)66 containers across4 containers high on deckAEarly Containerships (1956-)4A137x17x9500 – 800 TEU84200x20x910Fully Cellular (1970-)5215x20x1044 containers high below deck1,000 – 2,500 TEU13B6Panamax (1980-)B250x32x12.553,000 – 3,400 TEU13Panamax Max (1985-)8290x32x12.53,400 – 4,500 TEU615C9Post Panamax (1988-)C285x40x1354,000 – 5,000 TEU17Post Panamax Plus (2000-)9Source: Ashar and Rodrigue, All dimensions are in meters.6,000 – 8,000 TEU300x43x14.56DNew Panamax (2014-)20D12,500 TEU10366x49x15.26EPost New Panamax (2006-)397x56x15.5 ; 22–10–8 (not shown)E15,000 TEU2310Triple E (2013-)18,000 TEU400x59x15.58
22 World Air Travel and World Air Freight Carried, 1950-2011 Source: Airlines for America.