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Topic 9 – Transportation and Communications

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Presentation on theme: "Topic 9 – Transportation and Communications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Topic 9 – Transportation and Communications
A – Transport Networks and Costs B – Transport Systems Source: Frederick P. Stutz and Barney Warf (2012) The World Economy: Resources, Location, Trade, and Development, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall, Saddle River, NJ.

2 For personal and classroom use only
Conditions of Usage For personal and classroom use only Excludes any other forms of communication such as conference presentations, published reports and papers. No modification and redistribution permitted Cannot be published, in whole or in part, in any form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. Citation Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University.

3 A – Transport Networks and Costs
The Function of Transportation Transportation Networks Transportation Costs

4 1. Transportation as a Derived Demand
Activity Working Vacationing Manufacturing Direct Commuting Taxi Air travel Touring bus Trucks Containership Warehousing Indirect Energy Derived Demand

5 1. Core Components of Transportation
Modes Conveyances (vehicles) used to move passengers or freight. Mobile elements of transportation. Infrastructures Physical support of transport modes, such as routes and terminals. Fixed elements of transportation. Networks System of linked locations (nodes). Functional and spatial organization of transportation. Flows Movements of people, freight and information over their network. Flows have origins, intermediary locations and destinations.

6 1. Operational Differences between Passengers and Freight Transportation
Board, get off and transfer without assistance. Process information and act on it without assistance. Make choices between transport modes without assistance but often irrationally. Require travel accommodations related to comfort and safety. Must be loaded, unloaded and transferred. Information must be processed through logistics managers. Logistics managers meet choices between transport modes rationally. Require limited travel accommodations. Passengers Freight Source: adapted from EU-funded Urban Transport Research Project Results,

7 2. Centrifugal and Centripetal Networks

8 3. Distance, Modal Choice and Transport Costs
Road C3 Transport costs per unit Rail Maritime D1 D2 Distance

9 3. Freight Transport Costs in Dollars per Ton-Mile
Source: Ronald Ballou (1998) “Business Logistics Management”, 4th Edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

10 Average Haul Length, Domestic Freight in the United States, 1960-2003 (in miles)
Source: BTS. Table 1-35: Average Length of Haul, Domestic Freight and Passenger Modes.

11 Typical Ocean Freight Costs for some Products (Asia – United States or Asia – Europe)
Typical Shelf Price Shipping Costs Shipping Costs Share LCD TV Set $700 $4.00 0.5% Digital Camera (high range) $450 $0.15 0.03% Vacuum Cleaner $150 $1.00 0.6% Scotch Whisky (bottle) $50 0.3% Coffee (1 kg) $15 3.3% Biscuits (Tin) $3 $0.05 1.7% Beer (Can) $1 $0.01 1.0% Apple $0.75 $0.04 5.3% Source: ISL Shipping Statistics Yearbook 2003.

12 Household Expenditures on Transport, United States, 2005
Source: BLS Consumer Expenditure Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Available at:

13 B – Transport Systems Passenger and Freight Options Transport Modes

14 1. Main Passenger Modal Options
Air Road Rail Maritime Scheduled Car Intercity Ferry Charter Taxi HSR RoRo High Speed Van/Bus Transit Cruise Motorcycle Subway Commuter Bicycle LRT Walking Monorail

15 1. Main Freight Modal Options
Air Truck Rail Maritime Inland / Coastal Pipeline Package Package Unit Train Break-bulk River/sea Pipeline Freighter Oil Less than Truckload (LTL) Carload Liquid Bulk Tow Bellyhold Gas Truckload (TL) Boxcar RoRo Tank barge Water Heavy Tank Car Deck barge Dry Van Dry Bulk Flat Car Hopper barge Tank Reefer Container Source: adapted from W.J. DeWitt. Freight Transport & Modes in Global Logistics & Supply Chains. Flatbed Container Hopper Curtainside Gondola Reefer ISO Container Hopper Intermodal Reefer Open Top Flatrack TOFC Chassis Domestic Tank

16 2. World Road Network

17 Length of the Interstate Highway System and of the Chinese Expressway System, 1959-2012 (in km)
Includes Puerto Rico Source: Federal Highway Administration. National Bureau of Statistics of China,

18 2. World Rail Network and Rail Systems

19 Rail Track Mileage and Number of Class I Rail Carriers, United States, 1830-2008
Source: BTS and Association of American Railroads. J.L. Ringwalt (1888) Development of Transportation Systems in the United States, Philadelphia: Railway World, Rand McNally (1898) Miles of railroads in the United States, , Interstate Commerce Commission, Statistics of Railways in the United States. BTS and Association of American Railroads. Note: Data represent miles of road owned (aggregate length of road, excluding yard tracks, sidings, and parallel lines).

20 2. Domains of Maritime Circulation
Source: Shipping density data adapted from National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, A Global Map of Human Impacts to Marine Ecosystems.

21 2. Evolution of Containerships
(LOA – Beam – Draft) 6 6 containers across 4 containers high on deck A Early Containerships (1956-) 4 A 137x17x9 500 – 800 TEU 8 4 200x20x9 10 Fully Cellular (1970-) 5 215x20x10 4 4 containers high below deck 1,000 – 2,500 TEU 13 B 6 Panamax (1980-) B 250x32x12.5 5 3,000 – 3,400 TEU 13 Panamax Max (1985-) 8 290x32x12.5 3,400 – 4,500 TEU 6 15 C 9 Post Panamax (1988-) C 285x40x13 5 4,000 – 5,000 TEU 17 Post Panamax Plus (2000-) 9 Source: Ashar and Rodrigue, All dimensions are in meters. 6,000 – 8,000 TEU 300x43x14.5 6 D New Panamax (2014-) 20 D 12,500 TEU 10 366x49x15.2 6 E Post New Panamax (2006-) 397x56x15.5 ; 22–10–8 (not shown) E 15,000 TEU 23 10 Triple E (2013-) 18,000 TEU 400x59x15.5 8

22 World Air Travel and World Air Freight Carried, 1950-2011
Source: Airlines for America.

23 2. World’s Major Container Ports, 2010

24 2. Passenger Traffic at the World’s Largest Airports, 2010
Source: Airport Council International,

25 2. Latitudinal Intermediacy: COPA Airlines
Source: Network from COPA Airlines Web Site.

26 2. Freight Traffic at the World’s Largest Airports, 2010
Source: Airport Council International,

27 3. Global Submarine Cable Network
Source: Dataset encoded by Greg Mahlknecht,

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