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Virtuality of Nanotechnology

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Presentation on theme: "Virtuality of Nanotechnology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Virtuality of Nanotechnology
By N.S.Venkatesh, T.John college of pharmacy, Bengaluru.

2 Beginning of nanoscience
Richard Feynman ( ). Physicist. Shared Nobel Prize in 1965 for “Quantum electrodynamics” “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”

3 Nano in greek means “dwarfs”
What is nano? Nano in greek means “dwarfs” Nanotechnology is the ‘engineering of functional systems at the nanoscale’ (atomic, molecular, macromolecular).



6 comparision Human hair = 20,000 nm; can carry 1 lakh nanoparticle.
Whole population……you & me is Nano. A small marble piece in earth. 2 Sec ……. 1 nm growth of beard. 10 hydrogen atoms= 1 nm.

7 Different approaches of nanotechnology
Top-down Approach……….Tera to Atto Or (1012 to 10-18). Bottom-up Approach.……..Atto to Micro Or ( to 10-6)

8 What is nano material? Nanoparticle ……. gold, silver, platinum, iron.
Nanofilaments ……silicone, wrinkle proof cloth. Nanotubes …………carbon tubes. Nanofilms ………….graphenes

9 Preparation of nanomaterial
Physical Method: Ball mill, Laser...etc Chemical Method: (i) Metal Salt + Alcohol / Reducing agent. (ii) Metals (oxides)+reagents+water.....heated-up in a closed vessel……nano particle.

10 Steps involved in physical method
Homogenizer Ultra Sonicator Mills Spray Milling Supercritical Fluid Technology Electrospray Ultracentrifugation Nanofiltration

11 Formation of Nanoparticles
Solution of Dextran + Ferric hexahydrate (acidic solution) Drip in Ammonium hydroxide (basic) at ~2oC Stirred at 75oC for 75 min. Purified by washing and ultra-centrifugation Resulting Size ~ nm Plasma half-life: 200 min Unless tumor specific, damage can be done to all cells. Intracellular hyperthermia is based on the principle that a magnetic particle can generate heat by hysteresis loss under an alternating magnetic field (AMF). In 1979, Gordon et al. [10] DDS techniques to develop antibody-conjugated liposomes (immunoliposomes) containing magnetite nanoparticles (antibody-conjugated magnetoliposomes, AMLs). The targeting ability of AMLs mainly depends on the specificity of the antibody and the quantity and quality (including homogenous antigen expression) of the antigen on the tumor cell surface. enhanced by conferring a positive surface charge to liposomes. We have developed ‘‘magnetite cationic liposomes’’ (MCLs) with improved adsorption and accumulation properties.

12 Four generations of nanotechnology
1. Passive nanostructure:- Aerosols. (2000) 2. Active nanostructure:- Targeted drugs.(2005) 3. Systems of nano:- Robotics. (2010) 4. Molecular nanosystem:- Atomic design, Military camera ( )

13 Applications of Nanotechnology

14 Applications 1. Nanocosmetics……Nanosome skin cream.
2.Nanotextiles…….Lotus leaves, PTFE. 3.Nanosensors…….Dog, Dolphin, Tsunami. 4.Drug delivery……..BBB. 5.Tissue engineering….Tissue transplantations. 6.Lap on a chip (LOP)….ABG, Glucometer. 7.CNT display…..Aspect ratio, Clarity, Long lasting 8.Nanocomputers……DNA Storage.

15 Role in our daily life 1.Silver nanoparticle……Aquaguard, Socks.
2.LED ….Gallium nitride Nano+Yellow Phosphorus. 3.MRI………increase brightness of the image. 4.Carbon black…..paint, wear resistance tyres,polish,hard disk,sunscreen lotions (titania). 5.Diagnosis of disease…..CdSe. 6.Damascus Sword…..nanotubes,nanowires.

Development of one dose a day ciprofloxacin using nanotechnology. Tumor targeted taxol delivery using nanoparticles in Phase 2 clinical trial stage. Improved ophthalmic delivery formulation using smart hydrogel nanoparticles. Oral insulin formulation using nanoparticles carriers. Liposomal based Amphotericin B formulation.

17 Few examples for Drug Delivery Carriers

18 Key tools of nanotechnology
Graphenes:- A Single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice graphite structure. (gas detection, IC) 7 million= 1mm, elephant

19 Key tools of nanotechnology
Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT):- Cylindrical graphenes.(Entering nuclei of the cell to deliver drugs, TV Displays)

20 Key tools of nanotechnology
Buckyballs:- Spherical fullerenes (any molecule entirely composed of Carbon) Allotropes:- Two or more different physical forms in which an element can present.(diamond, graphite,charcoal)

21 Key tools of nanotechnology
Scaffolds:- Artificial,3D, biodegradable, biocompatible, temporary structure. (Transplantation)

22 Gold nanoparticle in cancer
Diagnosis :- CdSe IV seep into tumor under uv light cancer cell glows. Cancer Treatment :- Gold nanoparticle + cancer cell Radiation Metal(gold) absorbs energy(heat) Heat up cancer cell cancer cells are cooked inside the body, but healthy cells remain unaffected. Another MOA:- Increased heat Increase hsp Up-regulation Increase anti-cancer activity. (By nanotube & nanofibers, peptide inserted into fibroblast) Fibroblast secretes IF alpha

23 Gold Nanorod Approach Gold nanorods coated with bombesin attach to GRP receptors and are taken into the cancer cell. NIR laser energy is absorbed by the gold and kills the cell with heat. Gold permits imaging of the process.

24 Core Research Areas/ Team Leadership
Four R&D Teams Core Research Areas/ Team Leadership Cellular Probes Bio Sensors Core Research Areas Tissue Engineering Drug Delivery Systems

25 Nanomedicine Future For cancer, the very exciting promises that should be realized over the next 10 years are: 1. Presymptomatic blood diagnoses 2. Targeted Medicine (For breast & prostate Cancer) “This new approach to medicine may help us to have healthy & virtual life style”


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