9Preparation of nanomaterial Physical Method: Ball mill, Laser...etcChemical Method:(i) Metal Salt + Alcohol / Reducing agent.(ii) Metals (oxides)+reagents+water.....heated-up in a closed vessel……nano particle.
10Steps involved in physical method HomogenizerUltra SonicatorMillsSpray MillingSupercritical Fluid TechnologyElectrosprayUltracentrifugationNanofiltration
11Formation of Nanoparticles Solution of Dextran + Ferric hexahydrate (acidic solution)Drip in Ammonium hydroxide (basic) at ~2oCStirred at 75oC for 75 min.Purified by washing andultra-centrifugationResulting Size ~ nmPlasma half-life: 200 minUnless tumor specific, damage can be done to all cells.Intracellular hyperthermia is based on the principle that a magnetic particle can generate heat by hysteresis loss under an alternating magnetic field (AMF). In 1979, Gordon et al. DDS techniques to develop antibody-conjugated liposomes (immunoliposomes) containing magnetite nanoparticles (antibody-conjugated magnetoliposomes, AMLs). The targeting ability of AMLs mainly depends on the specificity of the antibody and the quantity and quality (including homogenous antigen expression) of the antigen on the tumor cell surface.enhanced by conferring a positive surface charge to liposomes. We have developed ‘‘magnetite cationic liposomes’’ (MCLs) with improved adsorption and accumulation properties.
12Four generations of nanotechnology 1. Passive nanostructure:- Aerosols. (2000)2. Active nanostructure:- Targeted drugs.(2005)3. Systems of nano:- Robotics. (2010)4. Molecular nanosystem:- Atomic design, Military camera ( )
14Applications 1. Nanocosmetics……Nanosome skin cream. 2.Nanotextiles…….Lotus leaves, PTFE.3.Nanosensors…….Dog, Dolphin, Tsunami.4.Drug delivery……..BBB.5.Tissue engineering….Tissue transplantations.6.Lap on a chip (LOP)….ABG, Glucometer.7.CNT display…..Aspect ratio, Clarity, Long lasting8.Nanocomputers……DNA Storage.
15Role in our daily life 1.Silver nanoparticle……Aquaguard, Socks. 2.LED ….Gallium nitride Nano+Yellow Phosphorus.3.MRI………increase brightness of the image.4.Carbon black…..paint, wear resistance tyres,polish,hard disk,sunscreen lotions (titania).5.Diagnosis of disease…..CdSe.6.Damascus Sword…..nanotubes,nanowires.
16SOME SIGNIFICANT ACHIEVEMENTS in pharmaceuticals Development of one dose a day ciprofloxacin using nanotechnology.Tumor targeted taxol delivery using nanoparticles in Phase 2 clinical trial stage.Improved ophthalmic delivery formulation using smart hydrogel nanoparticles.Oral insulin formulation using nanoparticles carriers.Liposomal based Amphotericin B formulation.
18Key tools of nanotechnology Graphenes:- A Single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice graphite structure. (gas detection, IC)7 million= 1mm, elephant
19Key tools of nanotechnology Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT):- Cylindrical graphenes.(Entering nuclei of the cell to deliver drugs, TV Displays)
20Key tools of nanotechnology Buckyballs:- Spherical fullerenes (any molecule entirely composed of Carbon)Allotropes:- Two or more different physical forms in which an element can present.(diamond, graphite,charcoal)
22Gold nanoparticle in cancer Diagnosis :- CdSe IV seep into tumor under uv light cancer cell glows.Cancer Treatment :- Gold nanoparticle + cancer cell Radiation Metal(gold) absorbs energy(heat) Heat up cancer cell cancer cells are cooked inside the body, but healthy cells remain unaffected.Another MOA:- Increased heat Increase hsp Up-regulation Increase anti-cancer activity. (By nanotube & nanofibers, peptide inserted into fibroblast)Fibroblast secretes IF alpha
23Gold Nanorod ApproachGold nanorods coated with bombesin attach to GRP receptors and are taken into the cancer cell. NIR laser energy is absorbed by the gold and kills the cell with heat. Gold permits imaging of the process.
24Core Research Areas/ Team Leadership Four R&D TeamsCore Research Areas/ Team LeadershipCellular ProbesBio SensorsCore Research AreasTissue EngineeringDrug Delivery Systems
25Nanomedicine FutureFor cancer, the very exciting promises that should be realized over the next 10 years are:1. Presymptomatic blood diagnoses2. Targeted Medicine (For breast & prostate Cancer)“This new approach to medicine may help us to have healthy & virtual life style”