Presentation on theme: "Review of Nanotechnology Safety SK Dua & J. Mwaisela-Rose Risk Management & Environmental Health & Safety Florida International University."— Presentation transcript:
Review of Nanotechnology Safety SK Dua & J. Mwaisela-Rose Risk Management & Environmental Health & Safety Florida International University
Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the control of matter at the nano scale to produce new materials, structures, and devices. Multidisciplinary field, involving physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and medicine. 2015, nanotechnology-related products predicted to reach $1 Trillion and employ 1 Million workers in US alone. Workers likely to have occupational exposures. Nanotechnology will change the nature of almost every human-made object.
Beneficial Applications Medicine Electronics Energy Production & Conservation National Defense & Security Leisure & Entertainment
Presentation Outline Basic introduction and overview: Potential beneficial applications of Nanotechnology Potential risks for the exploitation of the technology Occupational Safety issues and considerations in the application of nanotechnoloty
Applications (Medical) Nanophotonics Medical Applications: Organ tagging with nanoparticles May enhance basic understanding of the behavior of protein membranes. May allow body temperature adjustment to help with laser therapy, radiation or ultrasound treatment. Nanoparticles can be bound them to specific organ tissues to provide image contrasting. Suitable nanoparticles injected at a tumor site may allow treatment monitoring and administeration.
Applications (Medical)… Nanoparticles can be targeted to tumors. Dr. Lon Wilson, at Rice University demonstrated that ultrashort carbon nanotubes will permanently entrap At-211. Nanoparticles, can target magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear imaging, CT scanning and ultrasound imaging. Thus, giving far more complete view of tumor biology
Applications (Medical)… Segmented magnetic iron oxide “nanoworms” and coated with a polymer can find and attach to tumors Using nanoworms, doctors may eventually reveal tumors that are too small to detect by conventional methods. May carry payloads targeted to specific tumors,
Applications (Medical)… Nano-bio-chips like this one made of silicon (in blue) can be used to test saliva for characteristics of heart disease. The device is the size of a credit card and can produce results in as little as 15 minutes. The round objects in back are nano- bio-chips microfabricated from sheets stainless steel, making them about 100 times cheaper than silicon.
Applications… The new armor material. Medicines as nanoparticles Dental- bonding agents Vastly improved lasers and magnetic disk heads made by controlling layer thickness to better than a nanometer. Sunscreens, cosmetics Tires, automotive catalyst supports, ectroconductive coatings and optical fibers. Explosives detection devices
Applications… Chemical and bio-detectors New generation of lasers Nanostructured catalysts. Nanoparticle reinforced materials Molecular sieves High hardness cutting tools A new generation of ignition interlocking devices, Cheap, high-output solar cells in lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystals by avalanche effect.
Applications… Carbon nanotubes promise to replace metal entirely in future automobiles, mobile electronics, and other products Cleaner, dryer, durable products – paints, stain and wrinkle free clothing and scratch free car wax, eyewear and other optical devices. Electronics Biotech -Bandages embedded with silver nanoparticles, drug delivery patch, man-made skin.
Applications… Nano-electromechanical sensors identify a chemical warfare agent. Nanocomposite energetic materials with more than twice the energy output of typical high explosives. Highly efficient materials (carbon nanotubes packed with gold and surrounded by lithium hydride) convert nuclear radiation directly into electricity Iron nanoparticles that can remove up to 96 percent of a major contaminant from groundwater at an industrial site.
Potential Safety Concerns Fire and explosion risk- nanoscale powders, nanoscale combustible material could present a higher risk than coarser material with a similar mass concentration. Catalytic reactions - Some nanomaterials may initiate depending on their composition and structure However, processes generating nanomaterials in the gas phase, or using or producing powders or slurries/ suspensions/ solutions, or that disturb deposited nanomaterial pose the greatest risk for releasing nanoparticles.
Exposure Assessment and Characterization Many sampling techniques that are available for measuring airborne nanoaerosols vary in complexity but can provide useful information for evaluating occupational exposures with respect to: – particle size, –mass, –surface area, –number concentration, –composition, and –surface properties
Conclusions Some studies on the EHS effects of nanotechnology appear to indicate that NP have the potential to be unsafe. Nanotechnology may also offer many benefits for human health and the environment.
Conclusions An emerging body of studies reveals that we are simply uncertain of effects, ESH concerns are lagging far behind application research. However, it would not be prudent to completely halt nanotech development on EHS grounds, since nanotechnologies may prove extremely beneficial to both the environment and human health in the long term.