3Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
4Representatives in the Estates General Upper Clergy1st Estate300Aristocracy2nd Estate300Injustice:Each Estate gets one vote, so the representatives of 500,000 people (1st/2nd Estate) have more of a vote than the other 25 million (3rd Estate)Commoners3rd Estate1.Bourgoisie (middle class)2.Proletariat (urban working class poor)3.Peasants (poor farmers)648
6Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes What is the Third Estate?Everything!What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing!What does it demand? To become something!Abbé Sieyès
7“The Third Estate Awakens” The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.”They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.7
8Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789) On June 23, 1789, Louis XVI relented. He ordered the three estates to meet together as the National Assembly and vote, by population, on a constitution for France.The Third Estate relocated to a nearby tennis court where its members vowed to stay together and create a written constitution for France.Louis XVI responded by locking the Third Estate out of the meeting.The Third Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly.
10The Tennis Court Oath“The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy…Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations…”
11“The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
12Storming the Bastille July 14, 1789 Louis XVI did not want a constitution. Rumors spread that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. A mob of Parisian workers attacked this castle, mostly to get weapons.18 died.73 wounded.7 guards killed (their heads were put on spikes and paraded around the city)It held 7 prisoners (5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen)
14Uprising in Paris Uprising spread throughout France People of Paris seized weapons from the BastilleJuly 14, 1789Parisians organized their own government which they called the CommuneSmall groups – factions – competed to control the city of ParisUprising spread throughout France“The Great Fear”Nobles were attackedRecords of feudal dues and owed taxes were destroyedMany nobles fled the country – became known as émigrésLouis XVI was forced to fly the new tricolor flag of France
15The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789) Rumors that the feudal aristocracy were sending hired gangs to attack peasants and take their land. So peasants began attacking the aristocracy.
17National Assembly Responds: Night Session of August 4, 1789 Before the night was over:The feudal regime in France had been abolished.All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same political positions.Equality & Meritocracy!
19The New Tricolor Flag (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.Citizen!19
20How to Finance the New Govt.? 1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.20
212. Print Assignats New form of money issued by the National Assembly. Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security (inflation quickly became a problem with these).21
22New Relations Between Church & State Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.The church was reorganized:Parish priests elected by the district assemblies.Bishops named by the department assemblies.The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy.It transformed France’sRoman Catholic Churchinto a branch of the state!!Pope Pius VI [ ]22
23Adieu, Versailles!The Parisian Commune feared that Louis XVI would have foreign troops invade France to put down the rebellionMarie Antoinette, was the sister of the Austrian emperorA group of women attacked Versailles onOctober 5, 1789and forced theroyal family torelocate to Paris.
24Tuileries Palace (Paris, France) Royal family spent next several years inthe Tuileries Palace as virtual prisoners
25Changes under the National Assembly (1789-1791) Abolishment of guilds and labor unionsAbolition of special privilegesConstitution of 1791Declaration of the Rights of ManEquality before the law (for men)Many nobles left France and became known as émigrésReforms in local governmentTaxes levied based on the ability to pay
26The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789Liberty!Property!Resistance to oppression!Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.26
27Declaration of the Rights of Man Freedom of religionFreedom of speechFreedom of the pressGuaranteed property rights“Liberty, equality, fraternity!”Right of the people to create lawsRight to a fair trialAug 26th1789
28Wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791) Olympe de Gouges ( )Women played a vital role in the Revolution.But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.Wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791)28
29Declaration of the Rights of Woman Journalist Olympe de Gouges argued in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman that women are equal citizens and should benefit from governmental reforms just as men did.Madame Jeanne Roland also served as a leader in the women’s rights movement, and was able to heavily influence her husband (a government official).Women did gain some rights during the French Revolution, but these were designed for purposes other than liberating women.Women could inherit property, but only because doing so weakened feudalism and reduced wealth among the upper classes.Divorce became easier, but only to weaken the Church’s control over marriage.
30End of Special Privileges Church lands were seized, divided, and sold to peasantsCivil Constitution of the Clergy required that Church officials be elected by the people, with salaries paid by the government2/3 of Church officials fled the country rather than swear allegiance to this.Extremely divisive issue during the revolutionAll feudal dues and tithes were endedAll special privileges of the First and Second Estates were abolished
31Reforms in Local Government The 30 provinces and their “petty tyrants” (Intendants) were replaced with 83 new departmentsRuled by elected governorsNew courts, with judges elected by the people, were established
32The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government France is now a Constitutional Monarchy“Active” Citizens could vote [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor](so called Passive” Citizens couldn’t)1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise.Domestic servants were also excluded.Newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY now makes all the laws.GOAL Make sure that the country was not turned over to the “mob”!32
33Limits of Bourgeoisie Reform: Feudal dues were not completely renounced [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!]Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed.Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate.Their GoalSafeguard the right of private property!!33
34Bibliographic Resources “Hist210—Europe in the Age of Revolutions.”“Liberty, Fraternity, Equality: Exploring the French Revolution.”Matthews, Andrew. Revolution and Reaction: Europe, Cambridge University Press, 2001.“The Napoleonic Guide.”