Presentation on theme: "Four Phases (Periods) of the French Revolution National Assembly (1789-1791)Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)Convention (1792-1795)Directory (1795-1799)"— Presentation transcript:
Four Phases (Periods) of the French Revolution National Assembly ( )Legislative Assembly ( )Convention ( )Directory ( ) Bourgeoisie Phase Radical Phase (Reign of Terror)
Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
Commoners 3rd Estate 1.Bourgoisie (middle class) 2.Proletariat (urban working class poor) 3.Peasants (poor farmers) Aristocracy 2nd Estate Upper Clergy 1st Estate Representatives in the Estates General Injustice: Each Estate gets one vote, so the representatives of 500,000 people (1 st /2 nd Estate) have more of a vote than the other 25 million (3 rd Estate)
First Estate = 1 Vote for 130,000 people Second Estate = 1 Vote for 400,000 people Third Estate = 1 Vote for 25,000,000 people
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes 1What is the Third Estate? Everything! 2What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing! 3What does it demand? To become something! Abbé Sieyès
“The Third Estate Awakens” YThe commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.” YThey proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.
Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789) On June 23, 1789, Louis XVI relented. He ordered the three estates to meet together as the National Assembly and vote, by population, on a constitution for France. The Third Estate relocated to a nearby tennis court where its members vowed to stay together and create a written constitution for France. Louis XVI responded by locking the Third Estate out of the meeting. The Third Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly.
Tennis Court Oath by Jacques Louis David
The Tennis Court Oath “The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy…Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations…”
“The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
Storming the Bastille July 14, 1789 Louis XVI did not want a constitution. Rumors spread that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. A mob of Parisian workers attacked this castle, mostly to get weapons. 18 died. 73 wounded. 7 guards killed (their heads were put on spikes and paraded around the city) It held 7 prisoners (5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen)
Uprising in Paris People of Paris seized weapons from the Bastille July 14, 1789 Parisians organized their own government which they called the Commune Small groups – factions – competed to control the city of Paris Uprising spread throughout France “The Great Fear” Nobles were attacked Records of feudal dues and owed taxes were destroyed Many nobles fled the country – became known as émigr és Louis XVI was forced to fly the new tricolor flag of France
The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789) Rumors that the feudal aristocracy were sending hired gangs to attack peasants and take their land. So peasants began attacking the aristocracy. Rumors that the feudal aristocracy were sending hired gangs to attack peasants and take their land. So peasants began attacking the aristocracy.
The Path of the “Great Fear”
National Assembly Responds: Night Session of August 4, 1789 Before the night was over: The feudal regime in France had been abolished. All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same political positions. Equality & Meritocracy! Equality & Meritocracy!
National Assembly 1789 – 1791 SLOGAN: Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!
The New Tricolor Flag (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen! Citizen!
How to Finance the New Govt.? 1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.
2. Print Assignats - New form of money issued by the National Assembly. - Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security (inflation quickly became a problem with these).
New Relations Between Church & State Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches. The church was reorganized: Parish priests elected by the district assemblies. Bishops named by the department assemblies. The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy. It transformed France’s It transformed France’s Roman Catholic Church Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state!! into a branch of the state!! Pope Pius VI [ ]
Adieu, Versailles! The Parisian Commune feared that Louis XVI would have foreign troops invade France to put down the rebellion –Marie Antoinette, was the sister of the Austrian emperor A group of women attacked Versailles on October 5, 1789 and forced the royal family to relocate to Paris.
Tuileries Palace (Paris, France) Royal family spent next several years in the Tuileries Palace as virtual prisoners
Changes under the National Assembly ( ) Abolishment of guilds and labor unions Abolition of special privileges Constitution of 1791 Declaration of the Rights of Man Equality before the law (for men) Many nobles left France and became known as émigr és Reforms in local government Taxes levied based on the ability to pay
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789 VLiberty! VProperty! VResistance to oppression! VThomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.
Declaration of the Rights of Man Freedom of religion Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Guaranteed property rights “Liberty, equality, fraternity!” Right of the people to create laws Right to a fair trial Aug 26 th 1789
Olympe de Gouges ( ) Wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791) VWomen played a vital role in the Revolution. VBut, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.
Declaration of the Rights of Woman Journalist Olympe de Gouges argued in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman that women are equal citizens and should benefit from governmental reforms just as men did. Madame Jeanne Roland also served as a leader in the women’s rights movement, and was able to heavily influence her husband (a government official). Women did gain some rights during the French Revolution, but these were designed for purposes other than liberating women. Women could inherit property, but only because doing so weakened feudalism and reduced wealth among the upper classes. Divorce became easier, but only to weaken the Church’s control over marriage.
End of Special Privileges Church lands were seized, divided, and sold to peasants Civil Constitution of the Clergy required that Church officials be elected by the people, with salaries paid by the government –2/3 of Church officials fled the country rather than swear allegiance to this. –Extremely divisive issue during the revolution All feudal dues and tithes were ended All special privileges of the First and Second Estates were abolished
Reforms in Local Government The 30 provinces and their “petty tyrants” (Intendants) were replaced with 83 new departments –Ruled by elected governors New courts, with judges elected by the people, were established
The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government France is now a Constitutional Monarchy “Active” Citizens could vote [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] (so called Passive” Citizens couldn’t) (so called Passive” Citizens couldn’t) 1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise. Domestic servants were also excluded. Newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY now makes all the laws. GOAL Make sure that the country was not turned over to the “mob”!
Limits of Bourgeoisie Reform: Y Feudal dues were not completely renounced [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!] Y Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed. Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate. Their Goal Their Goal Safeguard the right of private property!!
Bibliographic Resources « “Hist210—Europe in the Age of Revolutions.” chron/rch5.htm chron/rch5.htm chron/rch5.htm « “Liberty, Fraternity, Equality: Exploring the French Revolution.” « Matthews, Andrew. Revolution and Reaction: Europe, Cambridge University Press, « “The Napoleonic Guide.”