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1789 The French Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "1789 The French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 1789 The French Revolution

2 Causes of the Revolution
Financial crisis gripped France. Inept leadership of Louis XVI. Inequity in French economic, political and social system (taxation of third estate). Growing size and power of the bourgeoisie. Influence of Enlightenment ideas. Bad weather (little ice age) and resulting crop shortages and famine.

3 The Estates General Called by Louis XVI to meet (at the urging of Necker) in July 1788. Elections gave 300 seats each to First and Second Estates, 600 to Third Estate. Bad harvest brought greater criticism. Aristocracy demands to constitutional monarchy, bourgeoisie wanted to end mercantilism and noble privileges , peasants want end to manorialism. May 5, 1789 they meet and vote by order.

4 The National Assembly June 17, 1789 – Third Estate declares itself the National Assembly and invited other estates to join. June 20th, Third Estate locked out; they meet on handball court and declare the Tennis Court Oath. Louis XVI opposes, but relents and asks other two estates to meet with Assembly. Assembly controlled by middle class and liberal nobility.

5 Storming of the Bastille
Rumors spread that the King is organizing troops. On July 11th, he dismissed Necker (later rehired). July 14th, mob storms the Bastille, symbol of despotic Bourbon rule. Necker is restored to power and the Marquis de Lafayette becomes commander of the National Guard.

6 The Great Fear Nobility begin to flee France in great numbers in the summer of 1789. Revolutionary fervor spreads among the peasants. Famine and riots spread across the countryside. On August 4, National Assembly ended manorialism and privileges of the nobility.

7 Declaration of the Rights of Man
August 27th 1789 – Assembly approved Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Provided freedom of speech and press. Freedom of assembly and petition. Freedom of religion. Freedom from arbitrary arrest. Embraced the doctrine of popular sovereignty.

8 The Women's March to Versailles
Autumn of 1789, rumors persisted of a plan by the king to use military force. On the night of Oct. 5-6, mob of mostly women marched to Versailles to protest the lack of bread. Royal family moved to Tuileries Palace in Paris

9 Political Clubs Jacobins Cordeliers Feuillants
Moderate faction that became more radical; supporting the end of the monarchy and establishment of a republic. Maximilien Robespierre was the most famous member Cordeliers Radical faction (support end of monarchy). Leading figures included Georges-Jacques Danton and Jean-Paul Marat Feuillants More conservative, supported constitutional monarchy.

10 Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Nov – to deal with financial crisis, Assembly confiscated all Church lands. Assembly then issued paper money (assignats) using land as security, but it quickly lost value. Assembly passed Civil Constitution of the Clergy on July 12, 1790. Bishops and priests were elected by people. Needed to swear allegiance to Assembly. Over half refused to do so, became opponents of the revolution.

11 The Constitution of 1791 Necker loses favor with the Assembly and resigns in Dec On June 20, 1791 Royal family attempts to flee that country, but is caught at Varennes and retuned to the capital. On Sept. 14, 1791 the king accepted the constitution creating a constitutional monarchy. Legislative Assembly was created as the legislative branch.

12 Reforms of the National Assembly
Abolished the titles of nobility and the parlements which they dominated. Created elected courts and juries. Ended torture. Reorganized local government into the 83 Departments. Followed laissez-faire economic policies by abolishing guilds and mercantilism. Created fairer tax system.

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