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Innovations and Georgia Aquaculture Gary J. Burtle Animal & Dairy Science The University of Georgia www.cpes.peachnet.edu/aquaculture.

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Presentation on theme: "Innovations and Georgia Aquaculture Gary J. Burtle Animal & Dairy Science The University of Georgia www.cpes.peachnet.edu/aquaculture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Innovations and Georgia Aquaculture Gary J. Burtle Animal & Dairy Science The University of Georgia

2 Hybrid Catfish Project Interest in Hybrid Catfish is gaining ground in the Southeast U.S.Interest in Hybrid Catfish is gaining ground in the Southeast U.S. Selling for 1.25 to 3.0 cents per inch depending on state and quantitySelling for 1.25 to 3.0 cents per inch depending on state and quantity Highest prices in AlabamaHighest prices in Alabama Limited by fingerling availabilityLimited by fingerling availability

3 Spawning Hybrids Need 5 yr old blue males, 4-5 year old channel femalesNeed 5 yr old blue males, 4-5 year old channel females Check females each week during spawning season and inject with carp pituitaryCheck females each week during spawning season and inject with carp pituitary Inject male blue catfish with carp pituitary and dissect testes for in vitro fertilization after female is stripped of eggs, 3-5 females per maleInject male blue catfish with carp pituitary and dissect testes for in vitro fertilization after female is stripped of eggs, 3-5 females per male Expect 3,000 to 4,000 fry per femaleExpect 3,000 to 4,000 fry per female

4 Hybridization Trial Results 50% of females will produce eggs by stripping after hormone injection50% of females will produce eggs by stripping after hormone injection Male blue catfish can be stimulated with urine from female blue catfishMale blue catfish can be stimulated with urine from female blue catfish Harvest testes within 24 hours of stimulation, urine or hormoneHarvest testes within 24 hours of stimulation, urine or hormone Maintain 78 degree water for best resultsMaintain 78 degree water for best results

5 Hybrid Stocking Obtain hybrid fingerlings from hatcheries with disease control programsObtain hybrid fingerlings from hatcheries with disease control programs Have fingerlings inspected for disease prior to purchaseHave fingerlings inspected for disease prior to purchase Apply chelated copper rather than copper sulfate for hybrid pondsApply chelated copper rather than copper sulfate for hybrid ponds Stock 6,000 to 10,000 per acreStock 6,000 to 10,000 per acre 0.05 to 1.5 pounds in 5 months0.05 to 1.5 pounds in 5 months

6 Vietnamese Catfish Basa, Pangasius bacurtiBasa, Pangasius bacurti Grown in cages on rice bran and dried fishGrown in cages on rice bran and dried fish Sold as frozen filletsSold as frozen fillets From 7 million pounds in 2000 to over 20 million pounds in 2001From 7 million pounds in 2000 to over 20 million pounds in 2001 Illegal label until October 2001Illegal label until October 2001

7 Basa

8 Cage Culture of Basa

9 National Bill Sets Label Law Introduced in House in early 2001 passed Senate in OctoberIntroduced in House in early 2001 passed Senate in October Requires “catfish” to be from the family “Ictaluridae” and excludes “Siluridae” or “Pangasiidae”Requires “catfish” to be from the family “Ictaluridae” and excludes “Siluridae” or “Pangasiidae”

10 Status of Imported Catfish Label Basa fish sold as catfish perceived as illegalBasa fish sold as catfish perceived as illegal July 2001, Vietnam orders all basa labelled as product of Vietnam, Mekon catfish, basa catfish, or pangas catfish.July 2001, Vietnam orders all basa labelled as product of Vietnam, Mekon catfish, basa catfish, or pangas catfish. October 2001, US Senate passes label law to require proper catfish labelingOctober 2001, US Senate passes label law to require proper catfish labeling

11 Impact of Vietnamese Catfish 20 million pounds of fillets in million pounds of fillets in % of farm raised catfish fillet market23% of farm raised catfish fillet market 3% of US catfish market3% of US catfish market Competition at time of US economic recessionCompetition at time of US economic recession Pond bank price below 50 cents per pound in Mississippi, 53 cents in GeorgiaPond bank price below 50 cents per pound in Mississippi, 53 cents in Georgia

12 Fish Imports (1,000 lb) Sept2000Sept2001Jan-Sep2000Jan-Sep2001 CatfishFillet6151,4015,17412,175 TilapiaProducts7,4995,55240,78750,007

13 Cold Storage Holdings (1,000 lb) Down 8 to 13% since Catfish12,90611,87313,337 SaltwaterTotal278,085240,879240,713

14 Fresh Fish Prices at Fulton Market (Nov 30, 2001) Catfish Fillet $ 2.75 /lb Cod Fillet $ 4.00 /lb ($2.00 frozen) Tilapia Fillet $ 3.90 /lb Hybrid Striped Bass Fillet $ 2.75 /lb

15 Tilapia Culture Several Recirculating Systems in GeorgiaSeveral Recirculating Systems in Georgia Some small hydroponics systems also in GeorgiaSome small hydroponics systems also in Georgia Processing in North Carolina by Southern States CooperativeProcessing in North Carolina by Southern States Cooperative Systems are in a mile radius of ValdostaSystems are in a mile radius of Valdosta

16 Economics of Tilapia Culture Based on capital provided by othersBased on capital provided by others Must have land and positive net worthMust have land and positive net worth Must be identifiable as a farmerMust be identifiable as a farmer Approximately $20,000 net per year per system as a goalApproximately $20,000 net per year per system as a goal Only available through Southern States CooperativeOnly available through Southern States Cooperative

17 Freshwater Prawns Machrobrachium rosenbergiiMachrobrachium rosenbergii An exotic shrimp from MalaysiaAn exotic shrimp from Malaysia TropicalTropical Lives in freshwater for part of its life-cycleLives in freshwater for part of its life-cycle

18 U. S. Prawn Culture Of interest for over 25 yearsOf interest for over 25 years Limited by the availability of seed stockLimited by the availability of seed stock Cultured in Texas, Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, recently in GeorgiaCultured in Texas, Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, recently in Georgia Average production 500 to 800 pounds per acre.Average production 500 to 800 pounds per acre. Maximum production about 2,500 lb/A.Maximum production about 2,500 lb/A.

19 Prawn Production in Ponds Prepare pond for stockingPrepare pond for stocking Stock 10,000 to 30,000 juveniles per acreStock 10,000 to 30,000 juveniles per acre Fertilize for first 30 – 60 daysFertilize for first 30 – 60 days Feed a sinking feed during months 2-4Feed a sinking feed during months 2-4 Monitor and control oxygen and pHMonitor and control oxygen and pH Use narrow ponds less than 2 acres in sizeUse narrow ponds less than 2 acres in size Harvest before water falls below 60 degreesHarvest before water falls below 60 degrees

20 Proper Sized Juvenile Prawns 60 day old, 95/oz60 day old, 95/oz day old, 250 to 280 per oz28-35 day old, 250 to 280 per oz Uniform size very importantUniform size very important Careful handling and stocking are essential to juvenile survivalCareful handling and stocking are essential to juvenile survival Avoid overcrowdingAvoid overcrowding

21 Feeding Prawns Start with cottonseed meal and N-P-KStart with cottonseed meal and N-P-K Use sinking catfish feed for 500 to 800 lb/AUse sinking catfish feed for 500 to 800 lb/A Use shrimp diet for higher yieldsUse shrimp diet for higher yields Monitor zooplankton with net during first monthMonitor zooplankton with net during first month Feed over entire pond areaFeed over entire pond area Estimate feed rate based on prawn samplesEstimate feed rate based on prawn samples

22 Water Quality in Prawn Ponds Aerate continuouslyAerate continuously Keep oxygen above 3.0 ppmKeep oxygen above 3.0 ppm Monitor pH twice each dayMonitor pH twice each day Flush with water to keep below 9.0 (Use pond water of low pH if possible)Flush with water to keep below 9.0 (Use pond water of low pH if possible) Add gypsum to lower pH, 1,000 to 2,000 lb/Acre added as neededAdd gypsum to lower pH, 1,000 to 2,000 lb/Acre added as needed

23 Harvest Procedure Seine most of prawns with water at 1/2 depthSeine most of prawns with water at 1/2 depth Use 1/2 inch mesh seine, grade with bar grader, 62/64 widthUse 1/2 inch mesh seine, grade with bar grader, 62/64 width Consider partial harvest one month before end of seasonConsider partial harvest one month before end of season Final harvest requires pond drainingFinal harvest requires pond draining

24 Economic Sketch Breakeven at 1,000 lb/A is about $5.00 per poundBreakeven at 1,000 lb/A is about $5.00 per pound Juveniles cost $1,500 to $3,000 per acreJuveniles cost $1,500 to $3,000 per acre Feed costs $300 to $550 per acreFeed costs $300 to $550 per acre Aeration costs $200 to $400 per acreAeration costs $200 to $400 per acre Labor cost $800 to $1,200 per acreLabor cost $800 to $1,200 per acre Variable cost total$2,800 to $5,100 per acreVariable cost total$2,800 to $5,100 per acre

25 Litopenaeus vannamei

26 Conditions for Culture 0.5 to 2.0 parts per thousand salinity0.5 to 2.0 parts per thousand salinity Recirculated water or small, aerated pondsRecirculated water or small, aerated ponds Establish bacterial food source as well as feeding an adequate sinking pelletEstablish bacterial food source as well as feeding an adequate sinking pellet Warm water temperatures would require indoor culture in GeorgiaWarm water temperatures would require indoor culture in Georgia Indoor culture may prevent disease outbreakIndoor culture may prevent disease outbreak

27 Current Status of Perry Project Contact William MacGrath Contact William MacGrath Georgia Marine Shrimp ProjectGeorgia Marine Shrimp Project Looking for Cooperating Farmers for Phase 2 of projectLooking for Cooperating Farmers for Phase 2 of project Economics available in next 12 to 24 monthsEconomics available in next 12 to 24 months


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