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TILAPIA CULTURE by Leonard Lovshin Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Auburn University, AL 36849 U.S.A.

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Presentation on theme: "TILAPIA CULTURE by Leonard Lovshin Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Auburn University, AL 36849 U.S.A."— Presentation transcript:

1 TILAPIA CULTURE by Leonard Lovshin Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Auburn University, AL U.S.A.

2 Water Temperatures for: Tilapia are native to Africa, Israel and Jordan Best growth- above 25 0 C Spawning - above 20 0 C Death- 10 to 12 0 C

3 Nile TilapiaMozambique Tilapia Blue TilapiaRed Tilapia Popular Cultured Tilapias

4 Food Habits Tilapia feed low on the food chain phytoplankton zooplankton

5 Tilapia can be cultured in fresh and salt water. 1. All tilapia can be grown in fresh water. 2. Mossambique tilapia and red tilapia with Mossambique tilapia genes can be grown in salt water.

6 Reproduction Males dig and defend a nest Females incubate eggs and defend the fry

7 Tilapia can be spawned in: 1. ponds 2. cages ( hapas ) 3. tanks

8 Fry can be harvested: days after stocking brood fish days after stocking brood fish

9 Fry can be: 1. partial harvested 2. completely harvested

10 Eggs can be removed from females: Incubating tilapia eggs Yolk-sac tilapia fry

11 Tilapia can be cultured as: 1. Mixed sexes - males and females together 2. Mono-sex - only males

12 Advantages: 1. Technically easy Disadvantages: 1. Small harvest weight 2. Mixed sizes at harvest Grow-out: Mixed-sex Culture

13 Advantages: 1. Large harvest weight 2. Uniform size at harvest Disadvantages: 1. Technically difficult Mono-sex culture

14 Stocking a predacious fish with mixed-sex tilapia will control tilapia density and increase final harvest weight. Largemouth bass in the U. S. A. Peacock bass in South America

15 Mono-sex male tilapia populations can be produced by: 1. Visual selection 2. Hybridization 3. Sex-reversal 4. Genetic manipulation Male Populations

16 Visual Selection of the Genital Papilla Male papilla Female papilla with oviduct anus

17 Hybridization Male Hornorum tilapia Female Nile tilapia All-male hybrid tilapia ZZ XX XZ

18 Sex Reversal of Tilapia Fry

19 Genetic Manipulation 1) XX F + XY M estrogen XX F + XY ”F” 2) XY ”F” x XY M XX F + 2 XY M + YY M 3) XX F x YY M 100% XY M

20 Tilapia are raised in: Small earthen ponds

21 Tilapia are raised in: Large earthen ponds Harvested tilapia are held in net enclosures while waiting to be loaded onto trucks for transport to processors.

22 Tilapia are raised in: Floating cages

23 Tilapia are raised in: Circular tanks with partial water exchange and mechanical aeration

24 Tilapia are raised in: Raceways with constant water exchange

25 Tilapia are raised in: Indoors with water reuse, mechanical aeration and oxygen injection

26 Tilapia ponds can be fertilized with organic and inorganic fertilizers to increase yield

27 Tilapia can be fed to increase yield

28 Tilapia can be fed Agricultural by-products Pelleted feeds sinking floating cottonseed meal wheat bran rice bran

29 Tilapia can be sold to Neighbors and Friends

30 Tilapia can be purchased At supermarkets and fish shops whole on ice fresh and frozen fillets

31 1. Most production is from enclosed, water reuse systems because of cold winter water temperatures. 2. Production costs are high. 3. Most tilapia are sold live or whole iced. 4. Presently, U. S. producers can’t compete with producers in tropical climates for processed tilapia. 5. Fresh fillets are imported from Central and South America. 6. Frozen whole tilapia and fillets are imported from Asia. Tilapia farming in the U. S.

32 1.feeds low on the food chain 2. accepts wide range of feeds 3. resistant to poor water quality, disease and handling 4. good flesh quality 5. fingerlings easy to produce year round Advantages of Farming Tilapia

33 1.sensitive to low water temperatures 2. reach sexual maturity at a young age 3. males grow faster than females 4. difficult to harvest from earthen ponds with a seine 5. low dressout percentage of fillet Disadvantages of raising tilapia

34 Over 2.0 million mt of farmed tilapia were harvest world-wide in China>Egypt>Indonesia U. S. tilapia Production 2004: 9,000 MT



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