2Species Cultured Trachinotus carolinus (Florida Pompano)* Trachinotus Ovatus (Golden Pompano)Trachinotus blochii (Silver Pompano)Family CarangidaeGolden pompano imported from china to meet Florida pompano demandsSilver pompano farmed in the Philippines.
3Economic ImportanceFlorida Pompano serves as an important sport and commercial fishing speciesIn the US Florida Pompano typically sells for $6 to $10 per pound. In Hong Kong its priced at $5/KgVery popular around several countries in Asia especially China from which we import golden Pompano to help meet our Florida pompano demands.Silver and Golden Pompano are produced heavily in Vietnam, Taiwan, Singapore the Philippines, and Malaysia.Pompano plates range from $20 to $32 per dish.
4Life Cycle Juvenile stage of the pompano -16 days after hatching Larval stage of the pompano fish-Newly hatched will be 2.0 to 2.3 mm long with little pigmentation.Fertilized Pompano egg (Neurula Stage)-eggs are buoyant, transparent and about 1 mm in diameter-Eggs hatch 24 hours after fertilization and develop quickly into the juvenile stage-takes nearly a year to reach marketable size of 450g (9 months)Pompano egg prior to spawning
5ReproductionPompano undergo natural spawning during spring and early summer.In aquaculture systems spawning is hormone induced within the brookstock year around.-Fish are injected with a 76ug pellet of gnRHa to induce spawning-Hatch rate falls between 70-95%Some culture systems will purchase juveniles from established hatcheries for the grow out phase.gnRHa=Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone AnalogueSpawning occurs approx. 36 hours after implantationSpawning time can run fro 1 to 5 days and implant between 1-3 million eggs.
6Feeds Early larval stages are fed an enriched feed of rotifers. Between 7 to 11 days after hatching artemia enriched feed replaces the rotifers.Artemia feed is discontinued 20 days after hatch.Commercial feeds are used for juvenile pompano fish in the transition stage of development.During the grow out phase commercial feeds are still utilized or they can be fed with “trash fish”-47% crude protein & 15% crude fat feed for 50g fish-43% crude protein & 12% crude fat feed for >50g fishBottom feeder(zoobenthos &small clams)Commercial feed as used because the pompano are adaptive and accepting of commercial foods.Sea cage systems in the Philippines will save on the cost of commercial feeds by incorporating mussel meat and small shrimps43/12 used 35% soybean meal
7Production Methods Pond & Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -RAS used for the nursery stage and larviculture in hatcheries of pompanoPonds are the least cost method compared to RAS and Sea cagesPonds had no artificial food implanted and very little human interference during the grow out phase.-Ponds are composed of water with a salinity of 19 ppt-Salinity and temperature levels are constantly recorded using a Refractometer and temperature monitor-Aeration provided by 4 six inch diffusers spread out through the ponds.-Has to have a minimum depth of 3 ft. due jumping behavior of pompano leading to mortality.-High potential for growth in GOM of Florida pompano in sea cages but is not allowed.
82) Sea water Cages (for silver and golden Pompano) Fingerlings for grow- out are provided by hatcheries to the sea cagesCages are placed in calm, protected warm waters such as coves, bays or sheltered lagoonsCage site must have a good source of water exchange to maintain water qualityNursery net cages made of B-netGrow out net cages P.E knotted net with a mesh size of 14 cm.Used in China and the Philippines but not the US.A. Nursery Phase – Nursing or conditioning from fingerlings to juvenile stage.Nursing or conditioning is necessary when fingerling size ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 inch.Proper acclimatization of fingerlings prior to stocking should be done to achieve higher survival rate. This can be done in floating cages or hapa nets (4m x 4m x 3m) installed a week before stocking.The nursing phase is also the period of weaning or training the fingerlings to feed on commercial feeds (fry mash).Stocking density ranges from pcs/m3.The stocks are fed with fry mash three to four times a day at % body weight.Culture period from fingerling to juvenile stage is more or less one month. This should be done with proper feeding management and daily monitoring of stocks.B. Grow-out Phase• The grow-out phase involves the rearing of fish from juvenile (12.0g to 15.65g) to marketable size (250g to 1.0 kg average body weight).The net cages are made of knotless black nets (Super G No.14) installed outside the hapa net a week prior to stocking.The stocking rate of silver pompano is 30 pcs m-3. Stocking is done early in the morning by hauling the bottom of the hapa net to the surface and transferring the juveniles by scooping to the grow-out nets. The hapa nets are removed.Juveniles are individually counted before releasing to the main net.After three months culture, the nets are replaced with bigger sized mesh nets (40cm) to ensure good water exchange and to avoid attachment of potential harmful metabolites.Monthly replacement of nets is recommended.Feeds and Feeding Rate – the stocks are fed with commercial pellets.
9Water Chemistry & Culture requirements Temperature- 27 to 30 degrees CelsiusSalinity- 30 to 37 ppt for adults. As low as 9 ppt and as high as 50 ppt for juvenilesDO- between 5.5 and 8.0 ppmDepth- 5 to 7.5mVery adaptable to changing levels within the system except for temperature.Pompano are high susceptible to thermal stress and are greatly affected with temperature drop too low.
10Advantages Disadvantages Fast growingHardyTolerance for low salinity waterDifferent sizes can be placed in the same ponds because cannibalism is rareCan be fed “trash fish”Desirable for foodReadily adaptsStock must be obtained from along sandy beaches or hatcheries at present time.Little information is known about many aspects of the pompanoProblematic production of juveniles