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Using Alabama’s inland low salinity groundwater for the aquaculture of marine fish and crustaceans in west Alabama J. Caleb Hairgrove, Luke A. Roy, Ronald.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Alabama’s inland low salinity groundwater for the aquaculture of marine fish and crustaceans in west Alabama J. Caleb Hairgrove, Luke A. Roy, Ronald."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Alabama’s inland low salinity groundwater for the aquaculture of marine fish and crustaceans in west Alabama J. Caleb Hairgrove, Luke A. Roy, Ronald P. Phelps, D. Allen Davis Department of Fisheries & Allied Aquacultures Auburn University

2 Aquaculture Aquaculture involves the managed reproduction and grow out of aquatic animals under controlled conditions Aquaculture involves the managed reproduction and grow out of aquatic animals under controlled conditions Currently, Aquaculture provides almost 40% of the world’s seafood Currently, Aquaculture provides almost 40% of the world’s seafood

3 Inland Marine Aquaculture Marine Aquaculture Marine Aquaculture Ponds & cages Ponds & cages On-shore, Inshore & Off-shore On-shore, Inshore & Off-shore Inland Marine aquaculture? Inland Marine aquaculture? Land Costs and Availability Land Costs and Availability Disease Issues Disease Issues Storm Risks Storm Risks

4 Black Belt Historically described as a section of richly dark cotton-growing soil in Alabama Commonly used to describe a band of rural economically depressed counties

5 Catfish Industry The water surface area to be used for catfish production during July 1 through December 31, 2007, totaled 151 thousand acres, down 3 percent from a year ago (National Agricultural Statistics Services, July 26, 2007).

6 Issue: Increased competition in catfish market Pounds Growth Pounds Growth Catfish 597,108, ,450, % Catfish 597,108, ,450, % Tilapia 124,202, ,986, % Tilapia 124,202, ,986, % Salmon 10,515,000 40,767, % Salmon 10,515,000 40,767, % (Frozen Pacific) (Frozen Pacific)

7 Resources Available Good soils & abundant water Good soils & abundant water Center of aquaculture production in Alabama Center of aquaculture production in Alabama Low salinity ground water in some areas Low salinity ground water in some areas

8 Saline ground water in many areas of Black Belt Wells in Green Co. & Sumter Co. Wells in Green Co. & Sumter Co. 22% with salinities of > 1 part per thousand, 22% with salinities of > 1 part per thousand, As high as 9.2 ppt As high as 9.2 ppt Wells in Lowndes Co. Wells in Lowndes Co. 5.7% with salinities of > 1 part per thousand 5.7% with salinities of > 1 part per thousand Current Use: Channel catfish culture and marine shrimp culture Current Use: Channel catfish culture and marine shrimp culture

9 Inland Shrimp Culture The culture of marine shrimp in inland low salinity waters is occurring worldwide in countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, China, Ecuador, Mexico, the United States, and many others Marine shrimp cannot live in “freshwater” they require minimal salt levels and specific ions

10 West Alabama Shrimp West Alabama currently has half a dozen shrimp producers growing the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in low salinity waters with production equaling a farm gate value of 1 million dollars Americans consume more than 640 millions pounds of shrimp annually West Alabama farmers have formed the Alabama Inland Shrimp Producers Association (AISPA)

11 Initial Problems Farmers reported: Farmers reported: Poor survival (<30%) Poor survival (<30%) High mortality occurred if shrimp were stressed High mortality occurred if shrimp were stressed High variation in production between ponds High variation in production between ponds High variation in ionic profiles amongst sources and amongst farms High variation in ionic profiles amongst sources and amongst farms

12 Background Chemical ion concentrationpart ofmolecularmmol/ ppm, mg/kgsalinity %weightkg Chloride Cl Sodium Na Sulfate SO Magnesium Mg Calcium Ca Potassium K Bicarbonate HCO Bromide Br Borate BO Strontium Sr Fluoride F Salinity of sea water (35 ppt) is made up by all the dissolved salts shown in the above table.

13 Mineral Profiles Water chemistry of coastal seawater compared to saline groundwater from West Alabama. Percentages are obtained by comparing the concentration in the groundwater to that of seawater at the same salinity.

14 Potassium and Magnesium Bioassays confirmed that in west Alabama, low salinity well waters have insufficient levels of potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) Experiments conducted at Auburn determined that supplementation of K and Mg directly to the water source increased growth, survival, and production of marine shrimp reared in low salinity waters Experiments conducted at Auburn determined that supplementation of K and Mg directly to the water source increased growth, survival, and production of marine shrimp reared in low salinity waters Dietary supplementation of K and Mg to shrimp feed had marginal benefits Dietary supplementation of K and Mg to shrimp feed had marginal benefits

15 Potassium Potassium Muscle contraction Muscle contraction Nerve cell activation Nerve cell activation Osmoregulation Osmoregulation ATPase activity ATPase activity Magnesium Magnesium Ion transport across membranes Ion transport across membranes Osmoregulation Osmoregulation Muscular function Muscular function Potassium and Magnesium

16 Low salinity water Shrimp ponds are supplemented with fertilizers containing sources of potassium (muriate of potash ) and magnesium (K- mag) to raise levels of K and Mg and minimize osmotic stress Shrimp ponds are supplemented with fertilizers containing sources of potassium (muriate of potash ) and magnesium (K- mag) to raise levels of K and Mg and minimize osmotic stress Low salinity water must contain a specific soup of ions with adequate ratios to ensure long-term survival and adequate growth of L. vannamei in low salinity waters Low salinity water must contain a specific soup of ions with adequate ratios to ensure long-term survival and adequate growth of L. vannamei in low salinity waters

17 Example West AL Farm Water Profiles Minerals (mg L -1 ) Farm 1 (low stress) Farm 2 (high stress) Seawater Sodium Potassium Magnesium Calcium Salinity (ppt) Ratios Na:K Na:K44.3:1158.3:128:1 Ca:K Ca:K2.6:17.5:11:0.95 Mg:Ca Mg:Ca0.21:10.23:13.4:1 Farm 1 is a shrimp farm that supplements K and Mg to its water. Farm 2 was not successful at raising shrimp

18 Culture of Marine Fish Red Drum Red Drum Hybrid striped bass Hybrid striped bass Southern Flounder Southern Flounder Florida pompano Florida pompano Marine Bait Fish Marine Bait Fish

19 Red Drum Fast Growing Species Fast Growing Species 11 inches and one pound in its first year 11 inches and one pound in its first year inches and 3 1/2 pounds in two years inches and 3 1/2 pounds in two years inches and 6-8 pounds in three years inches and 6-8 pounds in three years Aquaculture techniques well established Aquaculture techniques well established $3.00 to $4.00 per pound $3.00 to $4.00 per pound Market? Market?

20 Hybrid Striped Bass Rapid growth in its first two years Rapid growth in its first two years Reaching a little under a pound in one year and over two pounds in two years Reaching a little under a pound in one year and over two pounds in two years Aquaculture techniques well established Aquaculture techniques well established $2.50 to $3.00 per pound $2.50 to $3.00 per pound Market? Market?

21 Flounder Well established commercial fisheries Well established commercial fisheries 14,347,384 lbs of summer flounder 14,347,384 lbs of summer flounder $1.62/lb $1.62/lb Tolerant to very low salinity Tolerant to very low salinity Aquaculture techniques being established Aquaculture techniques being established

22 Flounder Raceway

23 Pompano Highly prized food fish Highly prized food fish Limited commercial fisheries Limited commercial fisheries 402,133 lbs 402,133 lbs Market size 1 lb± Market size 1 lb± $ 3.40/lb $ 3.40/lb Aquaculture potential Aquaculture potential

24 Marine bait fish In Louisiana $40,000,000 in retail sales of live bait (shrimp & fish) in 2001 In Louisiana $40,000,000 in retail sales of live bait (shrimp & fish) in 2001 Wholesale bait prices in Florida (per fish) Wholesale bait prices in Florida (per fish) $0.24 to $1.00 for mullet $0.24 to $1.00 for mullet $0.19 for croaker $0.19 for croaker $0.66 for spot $0.66 for spot $3.50 to $5.00 per Dozen for bull minnow $3.50 to $5.00 per Dozen for bull minnow

25 Marine Bait Fish

26 Approaches to Marine Fish Culture Strategies employed by commercial shrimp farmers are currently being tested on marine finfish Strategies employed by commercial shrimp farmers are currently being tested on marine finfish The supplementation of K and Mg to waters and fish diets is currently being investigated as a means to increase growth and survival of marine finfish The supplementation of K and Mg to waters and fish diets is currently being investigated as a means to increase growth and survival of marine finfish

27 Experimental Systems Experimental systems have been set up at west Alabama shrimp farms to examine potential candidates for marine finfish production Experimental systems have been set up at west Alabama shrimp farms to examine potential candidates for marine finfish production Flow-through systems (600 L tanks) supplied from low salinity shrimp or catfish production ponds with supplemental aeration Flow-through systems (600 L tanks) supplied from low salinity shrimp or catfish production ponds with supplemental aeration

28 Alabama Fish Farming Center

29 Pompano Growth Trials Replicates - 4/treatment Replicates - 4/treatment Stocked 20 fish/ tank Stocked 20 fish/ tank 2.5 ppt Synthetic Seawater 2.5 ppt Synthetic Seawater Fed to satiation twice daily for 45 days Fed to satiation twice daily for 45 days Recirculating system consisted of glass aquaria, sump, biofilter, and particulate filter Recirculating system consisted of glass aquaria, sump, biofilter, and particulate filter

30 Supplementation of K and Mg to waters and fish diets

31 Metabolic Respiration

32 Management Challenges Seasonal temperatures effecting growing season & survival Seasonal temperatures effecting growing season & survival Interactions of soil & water, altering trace mineral profiles Interactions of soil & water, altering trace mineral profiles Developing mechanisms to best alter trace mineral profiles Developing mechanisms to best alter trace mineral profiles Develop management practices that will result in no discharge Develop management practices that will result in no discharge

33 Conclusion Alabama has a large amount of low salinity well water that cannot be utilized for traditional agriculture Alabama has a large amount of low salinity well water that cannot be utilized for traditional agriculture The identification of marine species that are suitable for culture in this water could potentially bring profits to west Alabama fish farmers The identification of marine species that are suitable for culture in this water could potentially bring profits to west Alabama fish farmers

34 Department of Fisheries & Allied Aquacultures Department of Fisheries & Allied Aquacultures Alabama Fish Farming Center Alabama Fish Farming Center Dr. Bill Daniels Dr. Bill Daniels Bill Hemstreet Bill Hemstreet Travis Brown Travis Brown Nelson Sansing Nelson Sansing

35 Questions?


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