Presentation on theme: "Using Alabama’s inland low salinity groundwater for the aquaculture of marine fish and crustaceans in west Alabama J. Caleb Hairgrove, Luke A. Roy, Ronald."— Presentation transcript:
1Using Alabama’s inland low salinity groundwater for the aquaculture of marine fish and crustaceans in west AlabamaJ. Caleb Hairgrove, Luke A. Roy, Ronald P. Phelps,D. Allen DavisDepartment of Fisheries & Allied AquaculturesAuburn University
2AquacultureAquaculture involves the managed reproduction and grow out of aquatic animals under controlled conditionsCurrently, Aquaculture provides almost 40% of the world’s seafood
4Black BeltHistorically described as a section of richly dark cotton-growing soil in AlabamaCommonly used to describe a band of rural economically depressed counties
5Catfish IndustryThe water surface area to be used for catfish production during July 1 through December 31, 2007, totaled151 thousand acres, down 3 percent from a year ago.The water surface area to be used for catfish production during July 1 through December 31, 2007, totaled 151 thousand acres, down 3 percent from a year ago (National Agricultural Statistics Services, July 26, 2007).
7Resources Available Good soils & abundant water Center of aquaculture production in AlabamaLow salinity ground water in some areasReason for history of successful catfish productionAcreage under water decreasing
8Saline ground water in many areas of Black Belt Wells in Green Co. & Sumter Co.22% with salinities of > 1 part per thousand,As high as 9.2 pptWells in Lowndes Co.5.7% with salinities of > 1 part per thousandCurrent Use: Channel catfish culture and marine shrimp culture
9Inland Shrimp CultureThe culture of marine shrimp in inland low salinity waters is occurring worldwide in countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, China, Ecuador, Mexico, the United States, and many othersMarine shrimp cannot live in “freshwater” they require minimal salt levels and specific ions
10West Alabama ShrimpWest Alabama currently has half a dozen shrimp producers growing the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in low salinity waters with production equaling a farm gate value of 1 million dollarsAmericans consume more than 640 millions pounds of shrimp annuallyWest Alabama farmers have formed the Alabama Inland Shrimp Producers Association (AISPA)
11Initial Problems Farmers reported: Poor survival (<30%) High mortality occurred if shrimp were stressedHigh variation in production between pondsHigh variation in ionic profiles amongst sources and amongst farms
12BackgroundChemical ionconcentrationpart ofmolecularmmol/ppm, mg/kgsalinity %weightkgChloride Cl1934555.0335.453546Sodium Na1075230.5922.99468Sulfate SO427017.6896.06228.1Magnesium Mg12953.6824.30553.3Calcium Ca4161.1840.07810.4Potassium K3901.1139.0989.97Bicarbonate HCO31450.4161.0162.34Bromide Br660.1979.9040.83Borate BO3270.0858.8080.46Strontium Sr130.0487.620.091Fluoride F10.00318.9980.068Salinity of sea water (35 ppt) is made up by all the dissolved salts shown in the above table.
13Mineral ProfilesWater chemistry of coastal seawater compared to saline groundwater from West Alabama. Percentages are obtained by comparing the concentration in the groundwater to that of seawater at the same salinity.
14Potassium and Magnesium Bioassays confirmed that in west Alabama, low salinity well waters have insufficient levels of potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg)Experiments conducted at Auburn determined that supplementation of K and Mg directly to the water source increased growth, survival, and production of marine shrimp reared in low salinity watersDietary supplementation of K and Mg to shrimp feed had marginal benefits
15Potassium and Magnesium Muscle contractionNerve cell activationOsmoregulationATPase activityMagnesiumIon transport across membranesMuscular function
16Low salinity waterShrimp ponds are supplemented with fertilizers containing sources of potassium (muriate of potash ) and magnesium (K-mag) to raise levels of K and Mg and minimize osmotic stressLow salinity water must contain a specific soup of ions with adequate ratios to ensure long-term survival and adequate growth of L. vannamei in low salinity waters
17Example West AL Farm Water Profiles Minerals(mg L-1)Farm 1(low stress)Farm 2(high stress)SeawaterSodium367.41187.510500Potassium8.37.5380Magnesium4.613.11350Calcium21.856.2400Salinity (ppt)1.43.034.5RatiosNa:K44.3:1158.3:128:1Ca:K2.6:17.5:11:0.95Mg:Ca0.21:10.23:13.4:1Farm 1 is a shrimp farm that supplements K and Mg to its water. Farm 2 was not successful at raising shrimp
18Culture of Marine Fish Red Drum Hybrid striped bass Southern Flounder Florida pompanoMarine Bait Fish
19Red Drum Fast Growing Species Aquaculture techniques well established 11 inches and one pound in its first year17-22 inches and 3 1/2 pounds in two years22-24 inches and 6-8 pounds in three yearsAquaculture techniques well established$3.00 to $4.00 per poundMarket?
20Hybrid Striped Bass Rapid growth in its first two years Reaching a little under a pound in one year and over two pounds in two yearsAquaculture techniques well established$2.50 to $3.00 per poundMarket?Freshwater fish that performs better at low salinity
21Flounder Well established commercial fisheries 14,347,384 lbs of summer flounder$1.62/lbTolerant to very low salinityAquaculture techniques being establishedUnique niche markets provide up to $12.00 a pound, sushimi, live product
22Flounder RacewayCurrently performing production trials in West AlabamaExplain what they are seeing in the right hand picture
24Marine bait fishIn Louisiana $40,000,000 in retail sales of live bait (shrimp & fish) in 2001Wholesale bait prices in Florida (per fish)$0.24 to $1.00 for mullet$0.19 for croaker$0.66 for spot$3.50 to $5.00 per Dozen for bull minnow
25Marine Bait FishBull minnow will reproduce under low salinity conditions (in un-supplemented water). Practical fish for production. Spot and other marine fish take more efforts. Bottom-line, marine bait is a live product, so no worries about foreign imports.
26Approaches to Marine Fish Culture Strategies employed by commercial shrimp farmers are currently being tested on marine finfishThe supplementation of K and Mg to waters and fish diets is currently being investigated as a means to increase growth and survival of marine finfish
27Experimental SystemsExperimental systems have been set up at west Alabama shrimp farms to examine potential candidates for marine finfish productionFlow-through systems (600 L tanks) supplied from low salinity shrimp or catfish production ponds with supplemental aeration
28Alabama Fish Farming Center Growth and survival of different marine fish tested in farm waters and synthetic seawaters.
29Pompano Growth Trials Replicates - 4/treatment Stocked 20 fish/ tank 2.5 ppt Synthetic SeawaterFed to satiation twice daily for 45 daysRecirculating system consisted of glass aquaria, sump, biofilter, and particulate filterMost work focuses on pompano, more sensitive to trace mineral deficiencies.
30Supplementation of K and Mg to waters and fish diets Change to % growth (final-initial/initial), studies underway
31Metabolic Respiration Greater respiration, more energy needed for osmoregulation, less available for growth
32Management Challenges Seasonal temperatures effecting growing season & survivalInteractions of soil & water, altering trace mineral profilesDeveloping mechanisms to best alter trace mineral profilesDevelop management practices that will result in no dischargeArtesian Wells, magnitude of water resources, how much water and how long will it be available
33ConclusionAlabama has a large amount of low salinity well water that cannot be utilized for traditional agricultureThe identification of marine species that are suitable for culture in this water could potentially bring profits to west Alabama fish farmers
34Department of Fisheries & Allied Aquacultures Alabama Fish Farming CenterDr. Bill DanielsBill HemstreetTravis BrownNelson Sansing