Presentation on theme: "Dissecting a Chicken Leg Birgit Self 4/13/09 TWU EDUC 5131."— Presentation transcript:
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Birgit Self 4/13/09 TWU EDUC 5131
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Activity Instructions Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to make students aware of the elements of the skeletal system and how they interrelate. Materials: Raw chicken leg quarter - one for each 2 student team Plastic knives and forks – one set per student Latex gloves for each student Copies of these activity instructions – one per student Wax paper, about 2 X 2 foot square – one per team Birgit Self 4/13/09 TWU EDUC 5131
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Background Information: A bone is a kind of body tissue which is made of both living and nonliving material. Each human body contains 206 different bones. All of the bones in the body, together with the tissues that bind them and protect them form the skeletal system. Each bone is made up of several different parts. A typical long bone is enlarged at both ends with a shaft in between. A membrane called the periosteum covers the bone. Under that layer is compact bone. Beneath the compact bone is a material called spongy bone. Spongy bone is softer than compact bone and contains many hollow spaces. These spaces help prevent the bone from breaking, because they act as shock absorbers when the bone is hit or banged. It is most of the material at the ends of long bones. Inside the shaft is a soft tissue called marrow, where the body's blood cells are produced. There are two types of marrow: yellow marrow and red marrow. It is the red marrow that produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Just like other living tissues in the body, the bones must be supplied with blood or they will die.
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Background Information: The skeletal system has five very important jobs. Support, protection, movement, storage, and production of blood cells. Just think, if we did not have a skeletal system we would be just like a blob of Jell-O. The bones also protect many organs, and also the brain. Our skull protects the brain and our ribs protect our internal organs.
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Background Information: The place where bones are connected is called a joint. Joints give you the freedom to move your body. A skeleton without joints would be like a statue. There are several different types of joints in our body. The hinge joint (knee, elbow, fingers) works like a door's hinge. It only allows movement only in one plane. The ball and socket joint (hip, shoulder) allows a great range of movement in all directions. The pivot joint (neck) moves around in a back and forth motion. A globe rotating is a good example of this. The gliding joint (wrist, ankle) allows a great range of motion. This joint is connected by one bone sliding over another bone. Finally, fixed joints (skull, pelvis) do not move at all. All of these joints are crucial to the proper functioning of the body.
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Different Joints : 1.Ball & Socket joint 2. Ellipsoid joint 3. Saddle Joint 4. Hinge Joint 5. Pivot Joint
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Lab Goals: Lab Goals: 1. To observe scientifically the shape, color, and properties of Muscle, Skin, Ligament, (Tendons) and Cartilage Tissue. 2. To record how the tissues are attached together to make a moveable joint, like the knee joint Dissection Drawing:
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Group Instructions Procedure: 1. Many animals have skeletal systems that are very similar to ours. Our leg is very much like that of a chicken leg including: femur (thigh bone) knee (hinge joint) fibula and tibia (smaller bones of the shin) cartilage ligaments These are all part of our skeletal system. Beyond that, we also have similar muscle structure, tendons, fat, and skin. We will be exploring each of these similar characteristics. 2. Place the chicken leg, skin side up, on the wax paper. Notice the texture of the skin. Note the follicles where feathers grew. 3. Turn the chicken leg over. The part of the chicken we call the meat is actually the muscle. Notice the yellow jelly-like substance which is fat. Pull off some of the fat and observe the difference in the consistency of muscle and fat.
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Group Instructions Procedure: 3. (continued) Locate the end of the bone that may be seen at either end of the leg. The cartilage is the white tissue that surrounds the end of the bone to protect it. The purpose of the cartilage is to keep bones from touching each other. It stops the wearing down of bone that would occur if the bones were in constant contact with each other. [see photo #1] 4. Return the chicken leg to the skin up position. Pull the skin of the thigh back to show the underside of the skin. Locate the blood vessels of the skin. [photo #2] 5. Remove the remainder of the skin. Review the other tissue that is now visible (fat, muscle, cartilage, bone). [photo #2] 6. Pick up the leg and bend the joint. Notice it is a hinge joint because it only moves in one direction. [photo #1]
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Group Instructions Procedure: 7. Using your plastic knives and forks, carefully cut away some of the muscle to expose tendons (white areas of the muscle) that connect the muscle to the bone. Tendons are part of the muscular system. Tendons are near the ends of the bones. Ligaments are more difficult to locate. Ligaments attach the bones to other bones. Look around the joint and try to locate ligaments. Also expose the cartilage for viewing. The cartilage surrounds the bone where it would be touching another bone. Cartilage is the protective cushion between bones. 8. Carefully cut away the muscle, fat, tendons, and practice identifying the different parts of the muscular system.
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Group Instructions Procedure: (This part is optional for student - Mrs. Self will demonstrate) 9. Carefully break the hinge joint. Notice both parts of the hinge joint and how they fit together. Note the amount of cartilage protecting each part of the joint. Important points to remember: - cartilage is between bones - ligaments hold bone to bone - tendons hold muscle to bone [see photo #5] 10. Carefully break the largest bone. Do not crush the bone. Observe the red jelly-like tissue inside the bone. This is the bone marrow. Marrow produces red blood cells and platelets for use throughout our body. Red blood cells carry food and oxygen to all cells in our body. Platelets allow blood to clot rather than continue free flowing. Poke the marrow with the point of the scissors to show the consistency of the marrow. Also note how brittle the one is and how easily it can be broken. Your own bones can break this easily too. [photo # 6]
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Group Instructions Procedure: 11. The skeletal system holds muscles in place, and in return the muscular system moves the skeletal system. The skeletal system makes red blood cells and platelets, and in return the circulatory system feeds the cells of the skeletal system. The skeletal system protects the lungs with ribs and in exchange, the respiratory system supplies oxygen to keep the cells of the skeletal system alive. The skeletal system protects the spinal column and brain, and in exchange, the nervous system keeps the entire body running correctly. Because muscles are so important to any animal, they are incredibly complex. They are efficient at turning fuel into motion, they are long-lasting, they are self-healing and they are able to grow stronger with practice. They do everything from allowing you to walk to keeping your blood flowing!
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Dissecting a Chicken Leg Vocabulary Words : muscle blood vessel bone ligaments skin cartilage tendons joint fat A). Fibers that contract and relax to effect body movement B). An elastic tube through which blood circulates. C). A tough, semi-rigid, calcified part of the skeleton D). connects two bones together. E). protective covering F). It covers the surface of joints, allowing bones to slide over one another, thus reducing friction and preventing damage. Keeps bones from touching one another. G). connects muscle to bone H). A point of connection between two movable parts I). is important in energy metabolism, heat insulation and cushioning. A yellow jelly-like substance.
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Vocabulary Words: Periosteum Solid bone Spongy bone Femur Tibia Hinge joint Ball and socket joint Connective tissue Epithelial tissue A dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints The layer of bone between the periosteum and spongy bone Is softer than compact bone and contains many hollow spaces The thigh bone or upper hind limb on animals The inner and typically larger of the two bones between the knee and the ankle A bone joint in which the only movement allowed is forward and backward. A joint, such as the hip joint, that is partly a sphere shape, it lies in a socket, allowing movement in many directions and rotates. A tissue that connects, supports, binds, or separates tissues or organs. Cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures in the body.
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Check for Understanding Match the Vocabulary word to the correct definition: cartilage ligament tendon fat skin muscle blood vessel bone joint A). Fibers that contract and relax to effect body movement B). An elastic tube through which blood circulates. C). A tough, semi-rigid, calcified part of the skeleton D). connects two bones together. E). protective covering F). It covers the surface of joints, allowing bones to slide over one another, thus reducing friction and preventing damage. Keeps bones from touching one another. G). connects muscle to bone H). A point of connection between two movable parts I). is important in energy metabolism, heat insulation and cushioning. A yellow jelly-like substance. _____
Dissecting a Chicken Leg Additional Information and Resources: Hyperlinks for Additional Information: How to dissect a chicken leg Four Types of Tissues Video of a Chicken Leg Dissection