Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Matter and Change"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2 Matter and Change Hingham High SchoolMr. Clune
2 What is Matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Mass- amount of material or “stuff” in an objectWeight is due to gravity, and changes from location to location; mass is always constant.
4 Types of MatterSubstance- a particular kind of matter - pure; is uniform (all the same) and has a definite composition (examples are elements & compounds)water; gold; lemonade?Mixture- more than one kind of matter; has a variable composition
6 Properties Words that describe matter (adjectives) Physical Properties- a property that can be observed and measured without changing the composition.Examples- color, hardness, m.p., b.p.Chemical Properties- a property that can only be observed by changing the composition of the material.
7 Properties Words that describe matter (adjectives) Physical Properties- a property that can be observed and measured without changing the composition.Examples- color, hardness, m.p., b.p.Chemical Properties- a property that can only be observed by changing the composition of the material.
9 States of matterSolid- matter that can not flow (definite shape) and has definite volume.Liquid- definite volume but takes the shape of its container (flows).Gas- a substance without definite volume or shape and can flow.Vapor- a substance that is currently a gas, but normally is a liquid or solid at room temperature. (water vapor?)
18 SolutionsHomogeneous mixtureMixed molecule by moleculeCan occur between any state of mattergas in gas; liquid in gas; gas in liquid; solid in liquid; solid in solid (alloys), etc.
19 SolutionsLike all mixtures, they keep the properties of the components.Some can be separated easily by physical means: rocks and marbles, iron filings and sulfurOther methods: distillation- takes advantage of different boiling points
26 ElementsElementA pure substance that cannot be made simpler by known chemical meansExamples: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and chlorine
27 ElementsEach element is represented by a symbol that usually consists of one or two lettersHydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Carbon (C), Chlorine (Cl), Sodium (Na)
28 Pure substances produced from the chemical combination of elements CompoundsPure substances produced from the chemical combination of elementsExamples: water (H2O) is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen, sodium chloride (NaCl) is a compound of sodium and chlorine.
29 Compounds Has a fixed composition Has its own characteristic propertiesH2 is a combustible gas, O2 is a gas helps burning but H2O is a liquid that is used to extinguish fire.
30 Compound or Mixture Compound Mixture Made of one kind of material Made of more thanone kind of materialMade by aphysical changeMade by achemical changeDefinitecompositionVariablecomposition
33 Chemical Symbols & Formulas Currently, there are 116 elementsEach has a 1 or two letter symbolFirst letter always capitalized; the second never; chemical “shorthand”Some from Latin or other languages;