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Matter: Properties & Changes Chapter 2 notes. (2.1) Physical Properties of Matter can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Matter: Properties & Changes Chapter 2 notes. (2.1) Physical Properties of Matter can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Matter: Properties & Changes Chapter 2 notes

2 (2.1) Physical Properties of Matter can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the sample Examples: color, phase, melting or boiling point, density, hardness, odor, taste can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the sample Examples: color, phase, melting or boiling point, density, hardness, odor, taste

3 States of Matter Solid (s) - definite volume and shape Liquid (l) - definite volume, but not shape Gas (g) - no definite volume or shape Plasma - highly ionized gas Solid (s) - definite volume and shape Liquid (l) - definite volume, but not shape Gas (g) - no definite volume or shape Plasma - highly ionized gas (s) (l) (g)

4 sToP & tHinK Which state or states of matter take(s) the shape of its container? Which state or states of matter can change in volume (without adding or subtracting from the sample)? Which state or states of matter take(s) the shape of its container? Which state or states of matter can change in volume (without adding or subtracting from the sample)?

5 Physical Changes Physical changes alter a substance without changing its composition

6 sToP & tHinK 1.Which of the following are physical properties? liquid at room temperature reacts with metals to form H 2 gas acids and bases combine to form water and a ‘salt’ boils at 145 degrees Celsius 1.Which of the following are physical properties? liquid at room temperature reacts with metals to form H 2 gas acids and bases combine to form water and a ‘salt’ boils at 145 degrees Celsius

7 (2.2) Mixtures… Mixture - a combination of two or more pure substances, in which each substance retains its individual chemical properties Heterogeneous mixture - does not blend smoothly, individual substances are distinct Homogeneous mixture - solution; has a constant composition throughout Mixture - a combination of two or more pure substances, in which each substance retains its individual chemical properties Heterogeneous mixture - does not blend smoothly, individual substances are distinct Homogeneous mixture - solution; has a constant composition throughout

8 sToP & tHinK Heterogenous or Homogeneous? (1) (2)

9 Separating Mixtures Filtration - porous barrier separates solid from liquid Distillation - liquids separated by differences in boiling point Crystallization - forms pure solids from dissolved substances Chromatography - separation based on ability to travel or be drawn across a material Filtration - porous barrier separates solid from liquid Distillation - liquids separated by differences in boiling point Crystallization - forms pure solids from dissolved substances Chromatography - separation based on ability to travel or be drawn across a material

10 filtration

11 distillation

12 crystallization

13 chromatography

14 sToP & tHinK What separation technique is shown in the following pictures? A B

15 (2.3) Elements & Compounds Elements - pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances –on the Periodic Table! Compounds - two or more elements bonded together that can be broken down Elements - pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances –on the Periodic Table! Compounds - two or more elements bonded together that can be broken down

16 sToP & tHinK 1.In your own words, what is the difference between an element and a compound? 2.Classify the following as being elements or compounds a)Sodium b)Sodium chloride c)Oxygen d)Carbon dioxide e)Copper 1.In your own words, what is the difference between an element and a compound? 2.Classify the following as being elements or compounds a)Sodium b)Sodium chloride c)Oxygen d)Carbon dioxide e)Copper

17 (2.4) Chemical Properties the ability of a substance to undergo chemical change Examples: “reacts with oxygen to form rust”, “forms a deep blue solution when in contact with ammonia” the ability of a substance to undergo chemical change Examples: “reacts with oxygen to form rust”, “forms a deep blue solution when in contact with ammonia”

18 Chemical Changes Chemical changes alter the composition so that a new substance forms Evidence of chemical change: formation of a gas or solid (precipitate), smoke, fire, an odor, temperature change, color change –Law of Conservation of Mass: composition changes, but mass doesn’t Chemical changes alter the composition so that a new substance forms Evidence of chemical change: formation of a gas or solid (precipitate), smoke, fire, an odor, temperature change, color change –Law of Conservation of Mass: composition changes, but mass doesn’t

19 sToP & tHinK Substance A is a yellow liquid and substance B is a blue liquid. The two are mixed and form a green liquid and a white solid. –What evidence suggests a chemical change occurred? –What other things could you look for to determine if there was a chemical change? Substance A is a yellow liquid and substance B is a blue liquid. The two are mixed and form a green liquid and a white solid. –What evidence suggests a chemical change occurred? –What other things could you look for to determine if there was a chemical change?

20 sToP & tHinK - which shows physical change and which shows chemical change? link to change animation #1 link to change animation #2 link to change animation #1 link to change animation #2


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