Presentation on theme: "Potential of using Organic Fraction of Solid Municipal Waste (OFSMW) for biohydrogen production in South Africa."— Presentation transcript:
Potential of using Organic Fraction of Solid Municipal Waste (OFSMW) for biohydrogen production in South Africa
The need for alternative energy Carbon emissions contributes to greenhouse effects. Currently, 85% of global energy is derived from fossil fuels & crude oil (Das, 2009). The WHO, estimates that people die each year from side effects of climate change (WHO, 2 003).
The need for alternative energy: depletion & prices Oil has reached its “Peak” production. This is due to high demands & overuse in global markets. A heavy increase in fuels prices is evidence over the past decades.
Hydrogen as a potential energy source H 2 is abundant, clean, efficient, can be derived from diverse domestic resources. Biomass Hydro Wind Solar Geothermal Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Oil With Carbon Sequestration. Transportation Distributed Generation HIGH EFFICIENCY & RELIABILITY
Energy extracted from OFSMW for H 2 production Substrate typeConversion efficiencySpecific H 2 production OFSMW2.5 mol H 2 /mol glucose 114 ml/g VS added OFSMW1.98 mol H 2 /mol glucose 127 ml/g VS added FW2.1 mol H 2 /mol glucose - FW2.11 mol H 2 /mol glucose 165 ml/g VS added FW mol H 2 /mol glucose ml/g VS added FW1.8 mol H 2 /mol glucose 91.5 ml/VS added
Production of OFSMW in South Africa Data from DEA, shows that an estimated 7.88 millions tons of organic waste were generated in South Africa in Only 35% was recycled. The rest was burnt and disposed on landfills. Poses environments & health risks.
Composition of OFSMW OFSMW consists of food waste, garden waste, paper, other various waste materials. Its generated from household, agricultural & industrial sectors. ComponentC H2H2 O2O2 N2N2 SAsh Food waste Paper Cardboard Textiles Rubber Leather Yard wastes Wood
Biohydrogen production processes from OFSMW Under different operational parameters SubstrateInoculumPretreatmentpH rangeOptimal pHTemp oC Reactor typeH 2 yield OFSMW Mixture of deep soil, pig excretes HST5.7_38UASR127 ml/g VS, 99 ml/g VS FWActivated sludge HST CSTR51-81ml/g VS FW+OMW Activated sludge_ CSTR ml/g VS FWAnaerobic sludge HST CSTR18-63 ml/g VS FWAnaerobic sludge HST5.5 _ 55CSTR ml/g VS
Biohydrogen & Bioelectricity generation from OFSMW: Our laboratory findings Semi-pilot process conducted in 10 L bioreactor (Labfors Infors). Inoculum: 100 o C for 30 minutes. At pH 7.9, o C,60 h HRT, and 100 rpm. The bioreactor was flushed with N 2 gas for 10minutes. H 2, CH 2 and CO 2 measured with sensors (Bluesens, Germany).
Biohydrogen & Bioelectricity generation from OFSMW: Laboratory findings Results: Maximum H 2 fraction of 46.72%. H 2 yield of ml H 2 /g TVS. Cumulative H 2 volume of 3.12 L No CH4 detected.
Biohydrogen & Bioelectricity generation from OFSMW: Laboratory findings The two-chambered MFC reactor was fabricated using glass material. Electrodes made up of graphite rods (1475 mm 2 cross section). Projected surface area of 2187 mm 2 At pH 7, 30 o C. Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of a MFC cell
Biohydrogen & Bioelectricity generation from OFSMW: Laboratory findings Results: A maximum electrical power density of 210 mW/m 2 was recorded. Current density mA/m 2 COD removal efficiency of 50.12%.
Conclusions 1. BioH 2 scale-up studies using OFSMW coupled with MFC for optimum bioenergy extraction would shorten the timeline: For a more environmentally friendly. Sustainable biohydrogen economy development. 2. BioH 2 from OFSMW will also assists to alleviate environmental hazards.