Sustainable energy supply; Is Hydrogen an option? Myths and facts C. Daey Ouwens Eindhoven University of Technology
Outline Some considerations about sustainability The energy supply (efficient use, fossil, renewables, nuclear) Hydrogen an option? Other choices: “Green” liquids and gases VW scenario Conclusion
What is sustainable development? A development which –makes an economic development possible –has hardly any environmental effects –is socially accepted –(optimal organizational structure) (cheap, clean, social acceptable) Process of change, needs creativity Many options; difficult to make choices Central role of technology
Considerations Which option is sustainable ? –Solar cells ? –Hydrogen in Fuel cells in cars? –Carbon dioxide sequestration? –Bio diesel from rape seed? –Co-combustion of wood in coal power plants? –Nuclear energy??? Is sustainability possible? Yes we can choose; CO 2 free Can we “predict” future energy supply? No
Main lines sustainable energy In order of importance; development over time Demand side Energy efficiency ; buildings, apparatus, greenhouses Recycling of materials Use natural materials Supply side Fossil fuels: methane (Natural Gas, NG) Biomass: “green” liquids, SNG, hydrogen? Hydro power, geothermal, wind, solar energy (PV, heat)?, waves, currents, etc Fossil fuels (coal, oil): hydrogen (CO2 storage)? Nuclear energy ???
Hydrogen an option? Two main lines of production Biomass: hydrogen (or “green” liquids or SNG) Fossil fuels: hydrogen and CO 2 storage CO 2 sequestration ; do we accept it?? NUMBY (Electrolysis: too expensive) First conversion by gasification get syngas; CO and H 2
Several products from syngas 1.Hydrogen 2.Very clean liquids; Fischer-Tropsch (Shell and Sasol) based on coal and NG; (Biomass, Germany and at ECN Holland) 3.Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) For 1: change of infrastructure For 2 and 3; holds only for biomass and NG (low emission of CO 2 ) For 2 and 3: no change in infrastructure
Hydrogen as a choice Hydrogen problems Production Storage Transport End-use; change in infrastructure As a consequence: expensive
Applications Hydrogen Hydrogen in cars - compressed, methanol, petrol, liquid? - fuel cell (weight, reliability, cooling, use at low temperature, cost)? - overall efficiency (well to wheel) Hydrogen in Natural Gas system - mix it with Natural Gas (10 %?);
Other choices Based on gasification Green diesel; Fischer-Tropsch (based on biomass and Narural Gas (not CO2 free) Synthetic Natural Gas (based on biomass) By fermentation Ethanol (petrol) - from food crops (sugar beet) now; woody materials in future
Other choices Bio diesel - from rape seed - from jatropha and pongamia (Developing Countries) Gas from anaerobic digestion In future Solar (solar cells (PV)), Wind and…. ????
Conclusion Is the introduction of Hydrogen sustainable yet? (cheap, clean and social accetable) Not so sure; change in infrastructure is expensive Hydrogen from coal and oil and NG; do we accept CO 2 sequestration Hydrogen from biomass; more attractive to make green liquids (diesel and ethanol) and SNG Do we need Hydrogen for a sustainable energy supply? No Will we introduce (use) it? Maybe