Presentation on theme: "Biomass Comes of Age Introducing BioHubs: The high level sector drivers; The role for “surplus” biomass; and The crucial benefits for MSW managers."— Presentation transcript:
Biomass Comes of Age Introducing BioHubs: The high level sector drivers; The role for “surplus” biomass; and The crucial benefits for MSW managers Regional BioHub Forum Thursday, 13 th February 2014 University of New England, Armidale
The Drivers – The Need & the Opportunity In the face of the related global agendas of: –Climate change; –Resource depletion, and the need to establish –Sustainable economic systems; a definitive conclusion is the need to limit the use of fossil fuel resources and so to reduce Greenhouse Gas accumulation in the atmosphere.
–The only logical source of supply for carbon based molecules in a resource depleted and carbon constrained future. –The original source of the “solar powered” conversion of atmospheric carbon(CO 2 ) into vegetative biomass – the original source of fossil fuels – that we are being discouraged to use. –“Waste” biomass – no longer the “ugly ducking”. Biomass Comes of Age
Essential Biobased Products Modern complex economies cannot operate without the carbon based molecules currently supplied by fossil resources, for the full range of uses and “drop in” alternatives, including: –The complete range of chemicals and products from the integrated petrochemical sector; –Coke/coal/reductant materials that are essential for the metals manufacturing/smelting sector; –The agricultural fertilizer/soil productivity sector; and –Specialised and liquid transport fuels sector, with special focus on aviation fuels. NB: More than just compost or firewood. Bioenergy as an important by-product.
Biomass currently presents as 5 generic sources (defined by commercial circumstances at point of presentation): 1.Forestry and Agricultural harvest residues – Characteristics: seasonal or campaign availability but homogeneous by-product of core activity. 2.Forestry and Agricultural processing residues – Characteristics: regularly available, homogenous and geographically concentrated but a supply pushed by-product. 3.Urban waste streams – Characteristics: end of (first) life arisings to be recovered as reliable, but heterogeneous flows via streaming/cascading systems. 4.Land Management & Development Arisings – Characteristics: one off or irregular arisings of potentially high value homogeneous biomass. 5.Specially grown or generated biomass – Characteristics: highest quality, reliably available but most expensive as primary production costs to be recovered in sale of materials. Needs cost effective outlet for by-products. Biomass Sources Value adding wastes & residues to make the primary activity more profitable Will benefit from shared systems & infrastructure over time
Highest Net Resource Application of Available Biomass Low carbon energy sources Features/Properties ABCDEFGHI Renewable On demand supply HeatPowerGasOilChar PetroChem industry manufacturing precursors Potential to be Carbon negative Fossil fuels with sequestration Hydro Wind Solar – thermal Solar – PV Geothermal Wave/Tidal Nuclear Biomass Table 1: Comparison of benefits and properties of non fossil sources Whilst <100yrs biomass can be converted to fulfil all the roles currently provided by fossil resources – there is nowhere near enough – so should be applied to highest and best uses – bioenergy as a by-product.
Biomass comes in 5 Distinct Types NB: Integration and collaboration across all the biomass sources necessary to achieve cost effectiveness of final products.
A “scrap yard” for waste or surplus biomass A receiver of last resort A “rail head silo” for specifically grown biomass A first point of receival The first point of assessment, value adding and/or pretreatment for whatever materials is presented. What is a BioHub?
The Main Features of a BioHub Making finished/tailored products from the full range of available materials to ensure customer satisfaction: Fertilizers Metallurgical charcoals Bioenergy Supply to high capital processors up the supply chain Servicing local communities – as part of an integrated network Some too much supply – not enough local markets Some too much product demand – no biomass supply Very few “Goldilocks” opportunities – hence network and collaboration
Whole of Life Cycle Materials Management (contd. ) Key: 1 The productive economy 1a Primary industry 1b Manufacturing 1c Consumer 2 Point of discard for metropolitan solid waste (MSW) 2a Point of discard for commercial and industrial (C&I) waste 3 First point of receival for residual MSW 4 First point of receival for dry recyclables 5 First point of receival for organics 6 Return of materials into the productive economy — metals 7 Return of materials into the productive economy — inerts 8 Return of materials to the productive economy — mixed organics and biomass 9 Return of materials to the productive economy — high calorific and hydrocarbon-based materials 10 Return of materials to the productive economy — source-separated organics 11 Point of discard — occasional, bulky, valuable or hazardous materials 11a Point of discard — valuable or toxic C&I 12 Special value recovery facilities 13 Treatment and detoxification facilities 14 Return of materials to the productive economy — treated toxics and household hazardous 15 Return of materials to the productive economy — special value recovery
Lessons learned for biomass fraction: –Paper/cardboard –Glass –Metals Two stage process: –Waste sector – Fee-for-Service – collect and pretreat –Product manufacturing Consumer facing Based originally on virgin supplies Lives and dies on product quality Success requires recovering resources from urban waste streams such that they can beneficially supplement/replace virgin resources in established product manufacturing. Making “Real” Products from Waste ( Creating the market pull for recovered resources back into the productive economy)
What an Integrated “Streaming/Cascading” System Could Look Like for New England
Projected Benefits for Councils –> 90% diversion –Cap on waste management charges immediately: Then CPI certainty Then downward pressure on costs and charges –No need to take process and market risk –Opportunity to “invest” in profitable resource recovery operations –Encourage and facilitate growth and employment Ultimately financed from the recovered value from the materials under management
Only Collaboration Can Achieve these Results –No single industry sector can achieve optimum results on their own –No council can achieve optimum results on their own –It requires: Regional collaboration Multi council based strategies Multi product flexibility Technology as servants not masters Governments (x3) to support initial scoping, planning and feasibility studies