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Training and the cardiovascular & pulmonary systems

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1 Training and the cardiovascular & pulmonary systems
Option B2&3 Training and the cardiovascular & pulmonary systems

2 Define Total Lung Capacity - The total amount of air your lungs can hold after forced inhalation. Vital Capacity - Maximum amount of air you can expel (using a forced exhalation) after forced inhalation. Tidal Volume - Amount of air inhaled and exhaled normally. Ventilation Rate- The rate at which air enters and leaves lungs

3 Measuring Pulmonary Function

4 Explain the need for increase in TV and VR during exercise
Ventilation Rate (VR) – the process of bringing fresh air into the alveoli and removing stale air Exercise increases the ventilation rate and tidal volume Maintains high conc. gradient of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the appropriate locations

5 Effects of training on ventilation cont’d
Training involves repeating exercises that bring the body into a desired state of fitness It reduces ventilation rate at rest due to increased efficiency of oxygen absorption and carbon dioxide excretion

6 VR and TV cont’d Increases with training due to the strengthening of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles Vital capacity increase is marginal at best

7 Measuring heart function
Heart Rate the number of times your heart beats in a minute

8 Stroke Volume – the volume of blood pumped out with each ventricular contraction

9 Heart Function Cont’d Cardiac Output = the volume of blood pumped out by the heart per minute Venous Return = the volume of blood returning to the heart via the veins per minute

10 Effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system
1. venous return increases 2. c.o. increases as a result of increased stroke volume but primarily heart rate…… due to increased carbon dioxide production during exercise, which in turn lowers blood pH…..detected by chemoreceptors, info sent to brain…nervous stimulation of pacemaker increases h.r.

11 Distribution of blood during exercise
Receive more: Skin Heart wall & Receive less: Kidneys, stomach, intestines. Brain receives same all the time

12 Effects of training on heart
Can increase the thickness of the heart wall and the volume of the ventricles = increased stroke volume at rest and play Can reduce heart rate at rest to 50 beats/min….due to increased s.v. At any level of exercise h.r. is lower after training due to increase in s.v. Max h.r. not greatly effected by training BUT due to increased s.v. athletes can perform at greater intensities

13 ERYTHROPOIETIN A glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells by stem cells in bone marrow. Produced mainly by the kidneys, it is released in response to decreased levels of oxygen in body tissue.


15 Risks and Benefits of EPO
Increasing PVC (packed cell volume)…a measurement of r.b.c. as a proportion of blood volume by using EPO increases overall oxygen load the blood can carry = greater anaerobic respiration and muscle contraction Risk = thrombosis =

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